Don't Know Much About History: 
        Everything You Need to Know About American History but Never Learned

Don't Know Much About History
American's Story by Kenneth C. Davis 
compiled by W. Antoniotti  Return to One-Page Class Handouts
 

Part 1 Building a Nation

1. Brave New World 
   
2. So You Want a Revolution    
3. From Constitution to Manifest Destiny    
4. Apocalypse Civil War & Reconstruction    
5. Growing an Empire: Wild West to WW1

See Map Cultural Explanations

Part 2 Becoming the
World's Leader

6. Boom, Bust, Boom: Jazz, Depression, WW2    
7. Hot War, Cold War, 1950's Race Relations
8. Camelot, Vietnam, and Race Riots
9. Evil Empire, Axis of Evil a Century Ends
     
Other Quick Notes Stuff
1) One-Page History    
2
) A Very Brief U.S. History    
3) 
U.S. Political Economy 1788-2016
4
) U. S. History 1900-2004     
5)
US Economic History 1900-2017
6) Political Economy Historical Summaries
7) One-Page Economics Class Handouts

Part 1 Building a Nation

1. Brave New World

American Culture

Politics

 War

Race Relations

By the time of Columbus, there were about ten million First Americans divided into hundreds of Indians tribal societies. The most advanced were the Mayans and Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru. To the north were the Eskimo and Inuit cultures. None developed the advancements in agriculture, mathematics, architecture, and other fields that were achieved in Europe and the East.

Editor's comments in red.

 

 

 

 

"After the great split from the Roman Catholic Church that created the Church of England, the question of religious reform continued heatedly in England. Feeling the Church of England was too ' "popish" ' some wanted to be further away from Rome, to ' "purify it" ' and they were called Puritan. Separatists felt the Church of England was too corrupt and wanted autonomy, to separate from the Anglican church. Thought too radical, they were treated as they would be today, forced out of England or underground. Some Separatists, now called Pilgrims, went to Leyden, Holland where they were accepted. But cut off from their English traditions, they decided to relocate to America.

Fifty-five Pilgrims were among the 102 men, women and children who were aboard the small ship Mayflower that landed on the now famous, and very small thanks to people taking souvenirs, Plymouth rock.  Puritans called themselves ' "Saints" ' or ' "First Comers." '

Recent estimates of Indian numbers living in the Americas before the Europeans arrived are very high, perhaps 100 million spread over the two continents. The European destruction of these peoples was ruthless though disease caused the majority of 90 percent killed. The unintended consequences of  progress, civilization, and Christianity were immense. See

The Great Small Pox Epidemic of 1617

Columbus: Continuation of a Genocidal Legacy

 

 

 

Slave trade in the Americas  began when English naval commander John Hawkins  
began direct trade between Guinea and the West Indies. By 1600 the Dutch and French had caught up and by the time slaves arrived in Jamestown, a million or more black slaves had been brought to the Caribbean and South America.


More Information 1 Early Colonial Period from a small pox epidemic, beginnings of Democracy, Slavery, Freedoms of Relegion, Immigration, Press, and 1st Great War
 

2  So You Want a Revolution

American Culture

 War

Politics

Race 
Relations

Twenty mostly women died in the 1692-93 Salem witch trials. The cause was  the common place religious infighting of the day.

People wanting there own church formed Salem Village in 1672.  Several years of haggling over ministers followed but 1689 brought  Harvard dropout Samuel Parris. He failed to calm the troubled parish. In January of 1692 the minister's nine and twelve aged daughters began acting strangely. So did the twelve-year-old Ann Putnam. She was daughter of the town's most powerful men. . The doctors diagnosis they were  bewitched and under an "Evil Hand."

Suspicion immediately fell on the Paris family's slave who had been teaching the girls fortune telling games. She was arrested along with two elderly townswomen. They  were jailed for witchcraft. The trail caused an astonishing wave of accusations and the three young girls, basking in all the attention, ignited a storm of satanic fear throughout the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

The trial was like something out of Alice in Wonderland. Twenty-eight people, mostly women, were convicted.  Five confessed and were spared, two escaped and a pregnant women was pardoned. Nineteen were hung and the husband of one died by stoning when he refused to confess.

Some blame ergot, a fungus that affect rye grain and the substance from which LSD is derived for the girls strange behavior.

 

 

 

 

 

The French and Indian War of 1756-63 also called the Seven Years War was the biggest and last of four wars fought in North America by European powers. They were fought for territory, raw materials, and new export markets. 

Iroquois engaging in trade with Europeans, 1722 Trade with Indians would become more important and control of land would be a cause of the American Revolution

A young George Washington was sent by Virginia's Governor to tell the French they were trespassing. Upon learning they hid no plans to leave the territory he returned, made a report, was commissioned, and wrote a small book entitled The Journal of Major George Washington

He returned with a 150 man militia to build a fort. Surrounded by the French, he surrendered and was sent packing back to Virginia where he was a hero for taking on England's chief rival.

A number of battles were fought with the French. Helped by Indians who wanted to repay many years of English treachery, the French won early battles. Eventually England and her colonies won. The spoils of war consisted of control of Canada, America east of the Mississippi, Florida and some Caribbean Islands

1750 possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange) in contemporary Canada and the United States.

Larger Map

Our Latest War  
The War On Terror: Who Are We Fighting?

Traditional view that the Revolution was fought for liberties Americans felt  as English citizens they already possessed. This should be merged with the political and economic view that the war was fought to transfer power from a British elite to a homegrown American power class. British bungling, economic realities, the Age of Enlightenment and historic inevitability also played a role in why the war was fought.

Needing money to pay for the Seven Years War with France, Parliament passed what it thought a entirely reasonable 1764 Sugar Act. It put a tariff  on sugar, coffee, wine and other imports into America. The colonies, were in recession which is usually the case after high wartime spending. They responded negatively with the resulting political slogan "No Taxation Without Representation."

Politicians were looking for more than a few seats in Parliament Wanted to drive a wedge between Mother England and the Colonies, they were seeking a larger prize.

Resistance to the sugar tax was negligible until a second 1765 Stamp Act put a stiff  tariff on all printed matter from newspapers and legal documents to playing cards. This was not a tax on trade but a direct tax and America protests grew louder and more violent. In Boston the house of British Governor Thomas Henderson was destroyed by an angry mob. In New York the home of the officer in charge of the Stamp Act was ransacked. This time boycotts were successful and the act was repealed.

Current US Tax System
still makes people unhappy

Following the 1643 murder of a Dutch farmer New Amsterdam's Governor ordered  friendly Wappinger tribe that had come seeking shelter massacred. Eight Indians were killed while sleeping. Their heads cut off and placed on poles in Manhattan. "A Dutch lady kicked the heads down the street."

The first of two New England Indian wars was against the Pequot, a powerful Mohican clan felt to be a threat. Urged in 1637 by Boston preachers and using trumped-up murder charges, Puritans declared war and sacked and burned villages. They then used Narragansett and Mohegan Indians to enter the stockade of Pequot and slaughter 600 inhabitants. The men were killed, the boys sold into slavery, and the girls and women became Puritan slaves. 

The summer of 1676 saw the second battle. It was against Massasoit's Wampanoag survivors of the Pilgrims massacre and the Narragansett who were led by Canpnicus. He had sheltered Roger Williams who had been banished from Boston because he wanted religious freedom.

The Indians were led by Massasoit's son Metacom.  Called King Philip because of his European dress and custom, he put up a good fight. But the Colonies had superior numbers plus 500 Mohegan Indians who were blood rivals of the Wampanoag. Devastating battle tactics that included a return to wholesale massacre of noncombatants followed.


Portrait of King Philip, by Paul Revere, illustration from the 1772 edition of Benjamin Church's The Entertaining History of King Philip's War

After these two wars the English were ready for the subjugation of New England.  See The 1676 King Philips War Began Two Centuries of Indian Removal.

 

 

 

 

 


More Information 2 Growing a Democratic Republic from the first Tea Party to 1973 finally bring civil rights, See Our Democratic Federalist Republic
 

3 Growing a Nation: Creating a Constitution to Manifest Destiny

American Culture

Politics

 War

Race 
Relations

The Revolutionary War brought prosperity as business prospered,  soldiers spent, factories turn out ships and supplies.  But victory brought inflation and depression. Bloodshed between Americans resulted as economic tension between two sides. On one was frontier farmers, inner-city laborers, the servant class, smaller merchants, and free blacks. On the other side were the haves consisting of landed slave holding gentry and the international city merchants.

A 1780 Massachusetts state constitution was not liked by the working people and many veterans who had not received their federal bonus. As the economy worsened farmers were seized to pay off debts and when called, the militia sided with the angry farmers. In 1786, seven hundred  farmers guided by Daniel Shays marched on the Springfield Massachusetts Armory. The Riot Act which allowed jail without a trial quickly passed. Then a thousand man army marched on Boston, the seat of wealth and power. Casualties on both sides resulted, but a cold winter disbanded the army.

But the civil disobedience of Shay's' Rebellion brought an end to the state's direct taxation, reduced farmer court costs and an exemption of workman's tools and household necessities from the debt process.

 

 

 

 


 

Daniel Shays and Job Shattuck, the two main rebels.

See Turning Points in American History Shay's Tax Rebellion Leads to a National Constitution

 

 

 

 

 

Napoleon Bonaparte engineered a coup that overturned the Revolutionary Directory that governed after the French Revolution. He eventually became ruler of France. President Jefferson's offered to buy New Orleans from France. Napoli offered a larger area because  needed money to finance a big army and he didn't want the cost of managing a far away territory. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase resulted. It doubled the size of the United States and was soon explored by Lewis and Clark.

Location of Louisiana Purchase

Click to enlarge.

President Jefferson had cut Whiskey Tax that  had defended and he also sent the Navy to fight Barbary pirates off North Africa. Both very popular and he  easily won the 1804 reelection. 

See the GEORGE WASHINGTON section of Presidential Courage and Meacham's Thomas Jefferson PART VIII.

The Federalist Party was on  its last legs, decided to support Aaron Burr's run for New York Governor. His bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton did all he could to stop Burr who he thought a "dangerous man."  Besides political attacks Hamilton, himself an admitted adulterer, went after Burr's notorious sexual exploits. Burr lost and not real happy with Hamilton, eventually challenged him to a dual. Hamilton's son had died in a dual and he was against them but he felt the Federalist Party honor was at stake. Hamilton missed. Burr did not.

The War of 1812 came about because President Madison was pushed into action by Kentucky's Henry Clay. Clay was upset because the English impressments of sailors taken from American ships. They also encouraged Indian unrest. 

The English fought a reluctant war as she was preoccupied with continental armies of Napoleon. English commercial interest wanted American markets and suppliers that were disrupted by the war.

 

Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere, a significant event during the war. Click to enlarge.

The two plus year war ended with America's only victory at the Battle of New Orleans which happened after the war had ended.

General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders as imagined in 1910 by painter Edward Percy Moran.

See

Presidential Courage on Andrew Jackson

 

 

 

The history of European relations with native Americans encountered in the new world is a story of endless betrayals, butchery, and broken promises. From the beginning with Columbus and the conquistadors; the Euro-American strategy created a genocidal tragedy that surely ranks with the cruelest episodes in man's history.

There were five civilized Indian tribes that were compatible with white culture and even copied some European styles. The  Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole tribes had built roads, schools, churches and had became farmers and cattle ranches.   

Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek about European technology
Click for an enlarged slide show.

Because of Andrew Jackson, America's attitude went from  anti-Indian sentiment with sporadic regional battles to the
convenient federal removal policy.

The Creek War of 1814 ended quickly. Commanding the Tennessee militia, Andrew Jackson used Cherokee Indians who were promised government friendship. They attacked the Creek from the rear. As treaty commissioner, Jackson managed to take away half the Creek lands much of  which he and his friends bought on attractive terms. He wrecked similar illegal havoc against Seminoles in Spanish Florida. 

Georgian Cherokees owned valuable land so over 15,000  were forced in 1838 to leave their homes  march to Oklahoma. About 4,000 died. The Indians called the forced march  Trail of Tears

 

Click

 

 

 

 

For more on A. Jackson see ANDREW JACKSON took on eastern bankers and vetoed the charter extension of the Second Bank of the United States because he felt it had excessive power over farmers. From Presidential Courage.

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More Information 3 Capitalism, Our Democratic Federalist Capitalist Republic, Building America's Democratic Federalist Republic 3 p
 

4 Apocalypse To Civil War and Reconstruction

American Culture

Foreign Affairs/Politics

 War

Race Relations

In the seventy-two years between the inaugurations of Washington and Lincoln a sparsely populates two hundred mile-wide third-rate republic threatened by foreign powers and dangerous Indian tribes changed. It had become a pulsing, burgeoning economic power stretching across the continent.

Canales were being built, first generation steamships carried prospectors around then Cape Horn to California, railroads and the telegraph were beginning to link ever growing cities, the horse-drawn reaper was improving agriculture, and the sewing machine and the Colt revolver was the talk of Europe.

Enhanced by the Irish famine,  immigration increased dramatically.  By 1860 one-eighth of America's 32 million people were foreign born. The slave-based agrarian  economy with its gentlemen farmer described so well by Margaret Mitchell's Gone With The Wind  was very different from the rushing into modernity Northern states.

James Polk won the 1844 Manifest Destiny election over the future of the Oregon Territory and annexation of Texas.

This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west. Here Columbia, a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she sweeps west; she holds a school book as well. The different stages of economic activity of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation. Click to enlarge.

 

 Independence, foreign provocation, and global politics had caused early U.S. Wars. The Mexican War was for territorial expansion. Young  Lieutenant,  Ulysses S. G rant, said the war was "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation."  

Polk sent General Zachary Taylor looking for trouble far into Mexico. He stopped at the Rio Grand River and when a U.S. soldier was found dead and a patrol attacked by some Mexicans, Polk announced " War Exists."  The Democratic congress quickly voted for war and  50,000 army troops.

 

The two-year Mexican War and the  Oregon Treaty purchase of Oregon fulfilled the Manifest Destiny idea that God had ordained that America go from coast to. It also brought in California which soon meant gold and political trouble. Would slavery be allowed in the new territories? Click to enlarge.  


More Information 4 A Divided Nation from the 1862 Battle of Antietam to 1919, The Year of Upheaval and U.S. Terror Episodes Since 1900

 

5. Growing an Empire: From Wild West to WW1

American Culture

Foreign Affairs/Politics

 War

Big Business
The Law

In thirty-five years after the Civil War to the twentieth century America moved with astonishing speed through  Reconstruction and being  nation of farmers to an industrial empire holding far- flung possessions. Railroads, steel and oil were the engine. But as Mark Twain and Charles Warner pointed out in The Gilded Age that the cost was many workers died. There was astonishing corruption and the outlaws of the Wild West were small-time compared to the politicians of  the east who brazenly stole millions.

New York police violently attacking unemployed workers in Tompkins Square Park, 1874.Click to enlarge.

 

 

The founding fathers had envisioned a government by an enlighten aristocracy comprising of gentlemen of leisure and education. They got a government in the government in the pockets of the powerful and wealthy  industrial and banking magnates. They literally owned the government and turned it into an instrument to enhance their personal wealth.  Postwar presidents were either weak, inept, or corrupt and had little chance against industrial giants like Morgan, Gould, Rockefeller and Carnegie. Teddy Roosevelt began the process fighting big business wealth and corruption. Click

Image result for Morgan, Gould, Rockefeller and Carnegie

 

 

 

Indians had lost there hunting grounds to the War of 1812, Manifest Destiny, the Mexican War, the California and Colorado gold rushes and industrialization. There were about 300,000 Indians left in the entire West and their last battle in the twenty-five years assault  against them by the U.S. Army was at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. General Custer and 250 soldiers ignored warning that between 2,000 and 4,000 Cheyenne and Sioux await them with a 1876 frontal attack. The disagreement was again caused by a  desire for gold and only the slaughter of  U.S. Army soldiers was reported back East.

Bloody Knife Click to enlarge.

 

"This was an era when political genius took a back seat to a genius expressed in accumulating and holding more private wealth and power than had been possessed in history." J.P. Morgan refused to loan the U.S. Government money because it lacked collateral and when he did loan them money, he promptly sold it at a enormous profit. America's wealth had always been controlled by a minority but at this wealth concentration was brought to an entirely new level. 

Building railroads was the source of wealth as the federal government provided the land, immigrants on both coasts provided the labor, Andrew Carnegie the provided steel, and J.P. Morgan Sr. and Jr. provided the cash.

Many millions were made in assorted railroad building scandals but this was small change compared to the fortunes being made by the so-called robber barons, a term coined by historian Charles Francis Adams in his 1878 book on Railroads: The Origins and Problems.

The Bosses of the Senate", a cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests–from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes, and salt–as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate. Click to enlarge.

 

More Information 5 Growing a Nation from 1789 Brain drain, a transportation revolution, Wars with Mexico and Spain, Homesteads, Parks, and Curing Heartworm

Part 2 Becoming the World's Leader   

6. Jazz to Depression to Hiroshima

American 
Culture

Politics

 Great 
Depression

Race
 Relations

The Roaring Twenties was an exuberant era in spite of Prohibition because of Hipflasks, new  dances like the Charleston, short skirt, and women shucking Victorian undergarments.

Click for More Pictures.

Image result for the roaring twenties dances

It was symbolized by the free spirit of the Jazz Age.

Hemmingway The Sun also Rises was his first novel, Sinclair Lewis ruled the decade with Main Street(1920), Babbitt(1922) Arrowsmith(1925) and his great novel of religious hypocrisy, Elmer Gantry(1927).

Sinclair Lewis 1914 Click for more pictures.

photograph of two men

Hemingway  with Col. Charles (Buck) T. Lanaham in Germany, 1944, during the fighting in Hürtgenwald after which he became ill with pneumonia.

Amelia Earhart 1928 flight across the Atlantic with two men, became an  overnight outspoken American heroine and model of" rugged feminism." Click

Amelia Earhart  Los Angeles, 1928, X5665 – 1926 "CIT-9 Safety Plane"

Suffragists won a battle against the church, Constitution, an all male power structure, and the many women who believed women were divinely ordained a second place role. The fight began when Abigail Adams admonished her President husband John to "Remember the Ladies."  The equality fight was exemplified by the many women who took part in the 10,000 worker 1860 Lynn Massachusetts shoe worker strike. Men made $3 per week while women earned one dollar. Women were also an active part of the abolitionist  movement and were tired of having fewer rights than males.

Quaker Alice Paul had learned the art political confrontation during her British studies. She blamed the Democrats and Windrow Wilson who was against women suffrage and needed the southern male vote for his 1916 reelection. She designed a plan to support Republican candidates. In 1918 the plan worked as a Republican Congress was elected and eventually passed the Nineteenth Amendment. It was introduced by our nation's fist female congresswomen member Jeannette Rankin.

Alice Paul and Helen
 Gardener, ca.
1908-1915 Click for slide show.

The July 19, 1948  Seneca Falls Women's Convention began the  Women's Movement. American women followed the lead of the far more radical British women who blew up mail boxes, burned buildings, had hunger strikes, and as a result were often  imprisoned. 

The Great War was over and America wanted a return to isolation and to get back to business. This meant three straight Republican in the White House. Warren Harding started the parade in 1921 by promising a "return to normalcy."  He died in office during the Teapot Dome bribery scandal and was replaced in 1923 by Calvin Coolidge. He believed "the business of America is business."  Silent Cal wanted to "stay the course." An international hero because as Commerce Secretary during WW I he had administered a  food program that fed Europe. Hoover won by a landslide He was helped by a strong economy, an ever increasing stock market, and the belief by some that a vote for Roman Catholic, Democrat Al Smith was a vote for the "Pope," Economic collapse ended the Republican presidential run in 1932 when Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the election.

FDR inaugural speech told the nation of  his  "... firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself."  Roosevelt tried many remedies during his now famous first 100 days. Some economic activity returned but unemployment didn't recover until WWII 1938 economic activity.

When the Supreme Court started disallowing much of his "New Deal" legislation FDR fought back by trying to pack the court. He revived an old proposal that would allow him to add a  judges for existing judges over 70 years of age. The balance of power defined in the Constitution was important to the Democratic congress. It had taken five years to lose a congressional battle.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The America's System of President Hoover was based upon  "Rugged Individualism" as opposed to Europe's "doctrine of paternalism and state socialism. It would be tested with the Great Depression.

The  "Coolidge boom"  with new companies like General Motors making investors rich caused a Wall Street boom. But all was not as it seemed.  Many were borrowing money to invest.    "Pools" run by crooked manipulators were the problem. They bought low and drove up the prices among themselves and then lured outside investors into the pool.

The post WWI crash of farm prices and high 1927 unemployment caused a drop in housing starts. By late 1929 steel and auto production were in decline. Europeans began withdrawing from U.S. stocks and  people who had bought stock with borrowed money were forced to sell stock to pay loans. What became known as ' "Black Tuesday" ' happened on October 29, 1929.

Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run 
early in the Great Depression. Click for slide show.

What made this depression great was it length and the way it touched so many in a devastating way. Over six thousand bank that had financed the Wall Street boom of the 1920's went bust and with them went the savings of a nation. Millions of Americans who had left the farm for an urbanized , mechanized society lost their job. Reported unemployment reached 25% though some thought it much higher. Henry Ford, who put 75,000 men out of work and on the road as '"hoboes" in search of work. President Hoover, a conservative,  thought any too much government assistance was Socialistic eve and Communistic. The situation was made worse in 1930 as the Hawley-Smoot Tariff to keep foreign goods out failed because European countries enacted their own tariffs. By 1931, Europe and "most ominously Germany were sucked into a violent whirlpool of massive unemployment and inflation."  The summer of 1932 saw an army of 25,000 unemployed WWI veterans  descend on Washington from all around the entire country in search of early payment of their 1945 WWI bonus. Hoover responded by sending General Douglas MacArthur and his young aid Dwight Eisenhower to push them out of town. This was easily accomplished and their village set ablaze to make sure they did not return. The Bonus Army suffered  4 dead, 1,117 injured. There were 689 police injured.

Bonus marchers 05510 2004 001 a.gif

Bonus Army (left) confront police. Click for show.

The turmoil in Europe lead to German Fascism which was a military dictatorship built on racisms and powerfully nationalistic foundation with support of the business class. War eventually seemed inevitable and FDR got around an isolationist congress with a Lend-Lease program in which the U.S. lent  food and war materials to any country whose defense was deemed vital. The materials could be returned in kind after the war. 

Eventually we entered what became known as WWII. It ended when President Truman made the very difficult and complicated decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan. The war cost over 50 million lives. Russia lost the about 7.5 million soldiers and about 23 million civilians.  Germany's  "final solutions" killed 6 million Jews and millions of Slavs, Eastern Europeans, Gypsies, and homosexuals.  U.S. solders deaths amounted to 300.000 with nearly 700,000

 

Sacco and Vanzetti were quickly arrested for a 1920 Braintree, Massachusetts robbery. They had these strike against them. They were Italian,  immigrants, and anarchists. The judge quickly tried "those anarchist bastards."  Executed occurred 1927 though years later FBI ballistics indicated Socca was probably guilty and Vanzetti was not guilty.

The country was in an anti communist frenzy equal to the one to be caused by Senator McCarthy thirty years later. This one began in 1919 after President Wilson's attorney general Mitchell Palmer had a bomb go off in front of his house. A month earlier bombs had been sent to homes of prominent men including J.D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan. The economic dislocation that typically follows a war meant high inflation, unemployment labor unrest. Attorney General Palmer set up the  Radical Division run by supercharged anti- Communist J. Edgar Herbert Hoover.  Mass arrests and deportation followed. Eventually immigration was cut drastically and somewhat limited to white Angel-Saxons from Great Britain

Were these riots or "ethnic cleansing?"
Tulsa, Oklahoma was a fertile  recruiting home for the Ku Klux Klan and the scene of massive  1921 race riot. Blacks, some recently discharged veterans, tried to stop accused Dick Rowland from being lynched. He was eventually released when the women involved would not press chargers. But this was after shots were fired and 10,000 whites, fully backed by the police, went wild.  More than 1,200 black homes were burned! Close to three hundred people died. Insurance companies refused to pay for fire losses and all newspaper accounts were cleaned out to remove evidence. It would be yeas before the outside world new of the slaughter.

TulsaRaceRiot-1921.png

Click for a slide show.

A similar event happened in the Rosewood, Florida massacre where the small, mostly black town was practically wiped out. Several blacks were lynched and six blacks and two whites were killed. As in Tulsa, memory of the event was soon erased in a ..."conspiracy of silence, shame, and fear."  

=A photograph of ashes from a burned building with several people standing nearby; trees in the distance

Sarah Carrier's house where two African-Americans and two whites were killed in Rosewood in January 1923. Click

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


More Information 6 T. Roosevelt took on corporate RR trusts, FDR took an unpopular stance by planning for war
 

7. Hot War, Cold War, and Race Relations Dominate the 1950's

American Culture

Americans move to the suburbs started watching television

Baby and Child Care

 

and read Dr. Spock's
 

And meet Elvis Presley  1957

Elvis would serve his 2-years
 in Germany keeping Russia under control!

 

and read Time publisher
Henry Luce proclaims
"The American Century."  

 

Barbie became part of
American culture as did Playboy.


Playboy cigarette lighter with the distinctive rabbit logo.

Foreign Affairs

In response to an Iron Curtin descending over Europe, the Truman Doctrine expressed America's belief that the United States should support free people resisting armed minorities and other outside pressures.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg NYWTS.jpg

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who took the fifth amendment when asked of they were communists and would not help prosecutors during their trial. They  were convicted and executed as part of a group convicted for passing atomic bomb secrets to Russia. Soviet documents released in 1990 indicated the FBI got it right.

Senator Joseph McCarthy, using documents from old investigations of Communists of  activity within the U.S. government, created a national furor. In 1950 he accused 205 State Department men of being part of a spy ring. Charges  proved unfounded but the press was willing to listen and publicize his hearings.  Americans were willing to believe his accusations that Communists were everywhere.

oseph N. Welch (left) being questioned by Senator McCarthy, June 9, 1954.

Lasting almost four years, McCarthyism came to an end when he attacked Army officers as Communists. President Eisenhower and news commentator Edward R Morrow (See It Now television) fought back. The senator came undone during televised hearing. He spiraled downward after the hearings and his 1957 death was caused by alcohol related health issue.

Great Britain kept control of Iranian oil as the Eisenhower administration used the CIA (headed by Allen Dulles with a plan organized by Teddy Roosevelt's grandson Kermit Roosevelt ) to engineer a coup to put a shah into power. Allen Dulles later resigned rather then participate in a plan to overthrow Egypt's Nasser.


Mohammad Mosaddegh, the leader of National Front (Iran) and the democratic Prime Minister of Iran

 War

Armed and trained by the Soviets, 90,000 North Koreans solders wanting Korean unification/ They attacked American sponsored South Korea in June of 1950. Defended by the United Nations in an attempt to stop what many thought was a world-wide Communist conspiracy.

Hundreds of thousands of South Koreans fled south in mid-1950 after the North Korean army invaded.

NATO troops were being beaten badly in a place very few people Americans knew about. But, President Truman and WWII hero General Macarthur said it was the right thing to do and that was good enough for most Americans. Led by General Douglas MacArthur and a "China lobby " of senators and media moguls like Henry Luce, the war hawks wanted an all out war against Communism including Mao's China. President Truman did not war and eventually was forced to fire zealous  presidential hopeful MacArthur.

MacArthur speaking at 
Soldier Fieldp>

MacArthur at a podium with a gaggle of microphones in front of him. 
    Men in suits and hats sit behind him.

Korean War

 New President Eisenhower also did not want a larger war and it he quickly ended. The three plus year attack was eventually thrown back. Two million Koreans lost their lives as did the over 500,000 defenders (54,000 American.)

Eisenhower in Korea with General Chung Il-kwon
and Baik Seon-yup, 1952.

Total civilians killed/wounded:

South Korea: 990,968 causalities
373,599 killed
229,625 wounded
387,744 abducted/missing
North Korea:
1,550,000 (est.)

The 1957 launching by Russia of the worlds first artificial satellite Sputnik expanded the cold war into space and science education.

Race Relations

ApartheidSignEnglishAfrikaans.jpg

In Brown vs. Board of Education
a 1954 9-0 vote, the Supreme Court overturned 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson and put an end to " Separate but equal."  This began sixteen turbulent years when the "...justices took the lead in transforming  America's approach to racial equality, criminal justice, and freedom of expression."

 

Rosaparks.jpgForty-three-year-old seamstress Rosa Parks would not go to the back of the bus. This resulted in a 1956 Supreme Court order ending Montgomery, Alabama bus segregation.

 

 

 

 

he No. 2857 bus on which Parks was riding before her arrest  is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.

Faubus speaking to a crowd protesting
 the integration of Little Rock schools

Federal Troops ordered to Arkansas in 1957 by President Eisenhower to enforce school integration for the Little Rock Nine.

 

The "Little Rock Nine" are escorted inside Little Rock Central High School by troops of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army. Click

 

 

 

More Information 7  HT made tough decisions like quickly See US Economic Normality 1945-2015,   Page 2, and  World Changed and Good Jobs Disappeared

8. Camelot, Vietnam, and Race Riots Begin Twenty Turbulent Years
 

American Culture

 Politics

 War

Integration and Law

The 1960's decade "...has come down to us as  'the sixties,' a romantic fantasy..." It came from a media that had created a Camelot Whitehouse and an Age of Aquarius vocalized by popular singing group The Fifth Dimension. Click to enlarge.

But the age that began with the sale of the controversial and sometimes confrontational birth control pill had a much darker side. "Riots and long, hot summers. Assassinations. Rock-star obituaries etched in acid. A war only a 'military-industrial complex' could love."...it was an extraordinary era in which all the accepted orthodoxies of government, church, and society were called into question."

Following in the footsteps of  books like Uncle Tom's Cabin  (1850), The Jungle (1906), and Sexual Behavior in the Human Male known as the Kinsey ReportsThe Feminine Mystique (1963)  "... delivered a karate chop to the American perception of reality. Betty Friedan, a summa cum laude Smith graduate described  the problem without a name that faced upper middle class women. They were being systematically barred from becoming anything more than a housewife and mother by society's institutions (governments, mass media and advertising, medicine and psychiatry, education, and organized religion)." Friedman's book helped to jump-start a stalled women's rights movement.

One result of President Kennedy's " ask what you can do for your country"  statement was the Peace Corps but this idealism masked a continuing U.S. policy of obsessive anti-Communism, especially about Cuba. Dominance began with the 1897 Spanish-American War. The victory  was glorified by Teddy Roosevelt's charge up San Wan Hill. The win brought Cuba's sugar, mining, cattle, and oil wealth almost entirely under American control.

The Cuban Project  was developed during the waning days of the Eisenhower administration. It was aimed at overthrowing and if necessary assassinating Fidel Castro.  Cuban revolutionaries were to be supported by CIA planted insurgents who were to  blow up bridges and knock out radio stations. Also American war planes were to control the air.  The CIA hoped  these events would set off a popular revolt against Castro. 

Recently elected President Kennedy decided no Americans would take part thus disarming air protection for the U.S. trained forces. The brigade of 1,400 Cubans landed at the Bay of Pigs on April 17,1961.

Castro's Cuba reacted much better on all fronts and the result was a disasters for American Foreign Policy. Cuban invaders killed were 114.  The rest were  imprisoned and then freed by President Kennedy when he traded $53 million in food and medicine. The money was sourced from private donations and from companies expecting tax concessions. Prisoners totaling 1,189 were released.. Four members of the Alabama Air National Guard died during the invasion.

The Bay of Pigs Cuban fiasco  hurt American prestige and goodwill.  "In Moscow, Kennedy was perceived as a weakling..." and Russia began arming Cuba more heavily.  American spy flights saw evidence of missile sites being built. Fifteen tense days resulted after President Kennedy demanded the sites be disbanded. U.S. military, supported by Vice President  Johnson wanted to invade Cuba but this reminded Bobby Kennedy too much of what the Japan's sneak attack at Pearl Harbor.  Instead of invading the President  ordered a Cuban navel blockade. Papers released many years later revealed that Russian Premier Khrushchev planned a nuclear response to a U.S. invasion of Cuba. Editor's editions in red.

President Kennedy"...went Texas in the fall of 1963 to shore up southern political support for his upcoming 1964 reelection bid..."  "A few months before, the good folks of Dallas had spat on Adlai Stevenson, JFK's UN Ambassador. "  Three shots rang out. The President died quickly and Lyndon B. Johnson became president.

Massive retaliation military philosophy which limited action to large retaliation was replaced by Flexible response which advocated  small local US military involvements.

The French left Indonesia in 1954 with a partitioned Vietnam ready for civil war. By 1963nU.S military advisors numbered 15,000. Money and materials to support the anti-communist Saigon government were also being  provided. In November a CIA fostered a coup toppled and then executed Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem.

Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in the 1963 coup.

CIA trained South Vietnam guerrillas attacked the North in 1964 but failed to undermine their military strength. The mode of attack was shifted to the Gulf of Tonkin where hit-and-run operations by small  torpedo boats supported by warships had been initiated. Radar blips observed at one destroyer resulted in return fire and torpedo blips observe at a second destroyer also brought return fire. Confirmation was not  made for either attack though the radar blips were later attributed to weather conditions.

History indicate that President Johnson knew of the dubious nature of the reports. But having been given authority by the Joint Congressional Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, he ordered air retaliation attacks on North Vietnam. The war was on but not to be declared!

LCDR Alvarez.jpg

Downed pilot Everett Alvarez, Jr. was  the first American POW. He was imprisoned for eight years.

President Johnson successfully blunted Republican candidate Goldwater's accusations that he was "timid  before Communism"  and easily won reelection. Johnson's Daisy television campaign ad indicated Goldwater was too quick to use the bomb helped win the election.

 

The 1989 film Mississippi Burning depicted a1964 effort by two FBI agents to learn about the murder of three black men at the hands of the Ku Klux Klan. It got everything wrong except the murders.  "Pressured by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, FBI's J. Edgar Hoover sent a large contingent of agents to Mississippi but they learned nothing."  A $300,000 reward brought the location of the three bodies. Twenty-one men including the police chief and his deputy were indicted. A local court dismissed the confessions of two Klansmen as unfounded information.  Conspiracy charges were later brought by the Justice Department. The indicted were tried before a judge that had once compared blacks to chimpanzees.  Seven of the accused were nevertheless convicted and sentenced to jail terms ranging from three to ten years.

The civil rights movement had coalesced behind Martin Luther King Jr. and together with the Southern Christian Leaders Association, "... some gains through the courts and legislation..."  had moved civil rights "...to the back burner.

By 1963 America's attitude began to change when President Kennedy was assassinated and Civil rights leader Medgar Evers was gunned down in Mississippi. Then there was a Birmingham, Alabama church bombing that killed four little girls.  Then three black men were murdered in Mississippi during the summer of 1964  and then in 1965 Malcolm was assassinated.

Housewife and mother of 5 children and a history of local activism Viola Liuzzo heeded the civil rights call and traveled in March of 1965 from Michigan to Selma, Alabama. During an FBI protected Civil Rights march she was shot and murdered from a car containing Klansman of whom one was an FBI informer.

A new generation of not so patient civil rights activists formed  the Congress Of Racial Equality and the Students Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Only days after the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1965 real trouble began. The August 11 arrest of a black man for drunk driving resulted in joking and taunting from a small white crowd. The  lone policeman called for reinforcements whose arrival brought a larger crowd. Eventfully stones, bottles, and blocks of concrete were thrown at the officers and  the crowd turned into a mob. The resulting Watts riots killed 24, injured 1,032 with 3,438 arrested. The next summer saw some riots but the worst came in Detroit and Newark during the terrible summer of 1967. The death toll was more than eighty.

Martin Luther King, Jr.  was shot dead in Memphis on February 29, 1968.

 

American Culture

Foreign Affairs Politics

 War

Integration Law

"The seventies got under way with the downfall of a corrupt Whitehouse ..." when a sinkhole called the  Watergate scandal  singled the beginning of a change in American's political landscape. It began a feeling of government mistrust and aimlessness.

 

President Nixon giving a televised address explaining release of edited transcripts of the tapes on April 29, 1974
Click to enlarge and for a slide show.

As if Watergate and the Cold War were not enough, an oil cartel called OPEC had enough monopoly power to put a stranglehold on the world's oil supply. 

International terrorists struck with impunity. The U.S. supported Shaw of Iran and riots end with the Iran hostage crisis which involved Americans imprisoned in America's Teheran embassy. The Iranian Revolution put an end to a decade of catastrophes.

Hostage Barry Rosen, the press attaché, age 34. The man on the right holding the briefcase is alleged by some former hostages to be future Iranian president Mahmud Ahmandinejad, although he, Iran's government and even the CIA denies this.

The Shah of Iran (left) meeting with members of the U.S. government: Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977 Click

Ayatollah Khomeini at Neauphle-le Chateau surrounded by journalists
Click

"America suffered the indignity of its massive power in a seeming decline."

 

 

 

 

 

What became known as the Pentagon Papers began to  appear in the June 18, 1971 NY Times. They depicted thirty-years of government deceit and ineptitude concerning U.S. Vietnam War activities. President Kenney  had ordered defense secretary Robert McNamara to make this historical study. A large team of scholars and analysts, one of whom was Rand Corporation analyst Daniel Ellsberg, gathered the information .  "Working at MIT after his resignation from Rand... "...Ellsberg decided to go public with the information."

Because the information reported was before the Nixon years, the White House was at first muted about the news release. The administration's attitude changed when it realized there were other highly classified secret documents to be protected. The administration threatened the Times with espionage charges. These were ignored and a court injunction stopping publication was ordered.  Based on the First Amendment, the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 in favor of the newspaper.

A White House group called the ' "plumbers" ' was formed to stop news leaks. Led by former CIA employee E. Howard Hunt and ex-FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy, the goal was to use their special clandestine talents to limit anti-administration activities. One of their first tasks was a marginally successful break-in at the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist.

Some were angry because security credibility and thus intelligence operations had been damaged. From another prospective the antiwar movement gained new strength. Either way, the Pentagon papers reinforced the "bunker mentality" among the "palace guard."

Watergate was much more than the third-rate burglary Nixon's press Secretary Ron Zeigler described. It was  larceny was only a tiny strand in the web of domestic spying, criminal acts, illegal campaign funds, enemies lists, and obstruction of justice that emerged from the darkness as Watergate. 

President Nixon giving a televised address explaining release of edited transcripts of the tapes on April 29, 1974

Israel has long occupied a singular, untouchable position in American foreign policy. American felt a kinship to Israel and her pro-western democracy. She was a reliable "client-state" in unstable Arab lands. Made strong by hard work and U.S. aid, she had won the Six-Day War of 1967 and the 1973 Yom kipper War.  Arabs tried to get back lost lands from the 1967 war by cutting off oil shipments to the West. But the OPEC lacked the necessary economic clout until 1973 when an oil boycott succeeded in increasing  the price of oil from $3 to $12 per barrel. The high oil prices caused mayhem in the United States where gas was rationed and speed limits lowered. To lower demand for oil environmental standards were relaxed and gas mileage targets set for automobiles. The result was historically high inflation and unemployment hit its highest level since the Depression. 

Then in 1978 the Shah of Iran's military dictatorship that had been set up by a 1954 CIA and British backed coup was overthrown during the very beginning of a fundamentalist Islamic revolution. It was led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. Gas exports to the U.S. were stopped. U.S. Embassy Hostages were taken.

Iran, history of: Iranian hostage crisis [Credit: AP]

Matters were made worse by a nuclear radiation spill at the  Three Mile Island nuclear plant.  Nuclear development was then curtailed and the oil cartel OPEC again raised oil prices.

Vietnam War Opposition continued even during the four-year pullout in which 20,000 US soldiers died. 

Protests against the war in Washington, D.C. on 24 April 1971

A suspected stronghold for the Vietcong at My Lai, Vietnam was the March 16,1968 target of Charlie Company. Lieutenant Calley was ordered to "clean the village out." Charlie company had seen little action in the last three months though there had been about 100 casualties from sniper fire and booby traps. Many were frustrates from fighting a war where no uniforms separated good gooks from bad gooks. Only old men, women and children were found.  On this day such civilians were herded into the center of their village and Calley ordered them shot. Three to five hundred mostly women and children were slaughtered at the My Lai Massacre. Four officers were court-martialed. Only Calley was found guilty for the murder of twenty-two villagers. President Nixon reduced Calley's sentence to house arrest.  Public opinion of Calley  being a scapegoat resulted his later being paroled.  Later as a prosperous businessman he refused comments for a 1989 documentary. It has now been well documented that My Lai was not the only crimes against civilians in Vietnam where twice the total bomb tonnage was dropped as compared to  WWII.  Agent orange and other chemical defoliates were also used.

War supporters on the right thought My Lai was an aberration and Calley a victim of a leftist antiwar movement. War opponents felt Calley and My Lai epitomized the war's immorality and injustice.

Photo taken by the Army photographer Ronald L. Haeberle on March 16, 1968, during the My Lai massacre, showing mostly women and children dead on a road. Click

Vietnamese women and children in Mỹ Lai before being killed in the massacre, March 16, 1968.[13] According to court testimony, they were killed seconds after the photo was taken.[14]

The Fall of Saigon signified what would be the first war lost in US history.

Victorious NVA troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon.

 

Integration Continues 
for a While

Schools with 90+ percent black students dropped, especially in the South where home schooling and Christian schools would became popular. Red added by editor.

High school dropout with a criminal record from his teen years Ernesto Miranda was convicted of kidnapping and raping a teenage girl. He had signed a confession stating he had been read his rights but his court-appointed attorney argued that Ernesto had not been told of his right  to legal council. A 1966 Chief Justice Warren Court ruled 5-4 that his Fifth Amendment  protection  against self-incrimination had been violated. To some it was a great milestone for civil liberty while others felt it was the beginning of civilization's end.

 

Ernesto Arturo Miranda was a laborer whose conviction on kidnapping, rape, and armed robbery charges based on his confession under police interrogation was set aside in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court ... Wikipedia

Based on new evidence Ernesto was later convicted and served time. He was paroled and died from a knife induced wound incurred during  a 1976 bar fight.

 

The seven to two 1973 Supreme Court ruling in  Roe v. Wade  prohibited state abortion limits during the first term (three months). It also limited prohibitions the states may make during the second term. For some, it was a matter of private choice (pro-choice), to others it was government-sanctioned murder (pro-life). 

President Reagan's appointees made the court more conservative and by a five to four vote the 1989 in the  Webster v Reproductive Health Service case the court expanded state authority to limit abortions. For more see cnn.Reagan.courts.

The Battle Continues

Protestors at the 2009 March for Life rally against Roe v. Wade

 

 

 

 

 

 


More Information 8 JFK continued to push school integration, RR hastened the end of the Cold War
 

9 From Evil Empire to The Axis of Evil

American Culture

Foreign Affairs Politics

 War

Economy

To many the Reagan era brought a brake from the sour mood caused by Vietnam and Watergate. "Wall Street was tottering through another of its periodic scandals,  -- this time it was over their manipulating junk bonds. A banking crisis would cost taxpayers billions", and Crake cocaine was the rage. Still, confidence had returned.

"Gender Gap tensions rose higher when law professor Anita Hill charged that President Bush's Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas..." had sexually harassed her when she was his assistant. 

Reports of Bill Clinton's womanizing surfaced during his nomination campaign. Womanizing followed him to the Whitehouse as his relationship with Monica Lewinsky resulted in a January of 1997 impeachment trial. Click

Monica  Lewinsky when she was a  White House Intern

Watch The Price of Shame
from TED

 

 

 

George Bush 1988 win made him first sitting vice president elected on his own right since Martin Van Buren's 1836 election . Bush was given a Martin Van Buren portrait on Inauguration Day though the fact that Martin lost reelection because of a terrible economy was probably not mentioned.

"Running as an "agent of change" who promised reforms, "Bubba Clinton" became the first "baby boomer" president."  in 1992. His campaign was aided by the indelible image of  President Bush looking at his watch during the third TV debate. Also right before the election questions about President Bush's role in the Iran-Contra affair were back in the headlines. Third party conservative candidate millionaire Ross Perot, capturing 19 percent of the vote. Bush lost by 6 percentage points.

A Pentagon Chainsaw Massacre over Clinton's attempt to overturn the ban on gays in the military cause him to accept don't ask, don't tell. This ended his very short honeymoon. Many small problems seemed to eclipse his major successes of the NAFTA free trade agreement, hand gun control legislation  known as the Brady Bill, and  a 1993 tax bill containing tough deficit reduction restrictions. 

The health care lobby had caused a sharp rebuttal to the President's centerpiece health care legislation and created problems for the1994 midterm election. As a result, the Republican gained control of the House of Representatives. They were led by Georgia Representative Newt Gingrich who trumpeted a conservative list of promises entitled the  Contract with America.

Advised by his pollsters, President Clinton dealt with the mid term election losses by moving toward the center. His budget battles with Republicans lead to a shut down of the government and Clinton came out the winner. His support for a major overhaul of the welfare system also helped with his battle with conservatives.

Election day 2000 saw a liberal sitting vice president Al Gore whose team had defeated Bush I in 1982 facing conservative Bush II .  "Those who cast the votes decide nothing. Those who count the votes decide everything" 'is a quote attributed to Joseph Stalin. On the day after voting the presidential election hung on Florida's twenty five electoral votes. Lawyers, the Florida Supreme Court, and the U.S. Supreme Court got involve and on December 12 the high court made a decision that gave the election to Bush II.  Third party candidate Ralph Nader running for the liberal Green Party received 1.63% of the votes which added to Gore's 48.84% gave him more than 48.85% received by Bush II.

 

 

" Saddam Hussein's August of 1990 invasion of neighboring oil-rich Kuwait..." added George Bush to the list of post WWII presidents confounded by Middle East problems. The United Nations was mobilized under Operation Desert Storm and a thirty-nine nation coalition went to work. A devastating air war followed by a very short 100 hour ground offensive did the trick. An Iraqi win would have given them control over 40% of the world's oil supply. Click

U.S. Army soldiers from the
11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade

Kuwait 

Click to enlarge most pictures.

Gulf War Photobox.jpg

Gulf War Kuwaiti oil fires

Donald Rumsfeld as U.S. special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.

Economics, also known as the dismal science, holds growth is good but too much growth can cause inflation. Alan Greenspan's phrase " irrational exuberance" to describe a 1996 stock market he feared might be too high sent tremors through the global economy.

When setting policy, the Federal Reserve must balance sustainable growth and maximum employment.  "Policies can ultimately determine the cost of home mortgages or car loans, the profits that support corporate survival and the stock marketing, or even, potentially, who is the next president."

Ruby Ridge

Ruby Ridge , Idaho was the 1992 scene of a confrontation between the family of "self-proclaimed Christian separatist  Randall Weaver and the FBI." Too many people were killed on both sides.

Waco Ridge Texas1993 siege was the scene of a Branch Davidian religious sect confrontation with the federal government. Their leader David Koresh had  accumulating many guns. Too many people were killed on both sides.
 Several fire-damaged cars located in front of a partially destroyed multi-story building.

The "By 1999, a majority of the public believed that the FBI had murdered innocent people at Waco... and Ruby Ridge."  On the second  anniversary of the Waco disaster the Oklahoma City truck bomb explosion at a federal government building killed 168 people.  Click

Unabomber of 1978-1998, targeting science and engineering professors. He struck sixteen times, killing three. It took seventeen years and $50 million to capture Ted Kaczynski.

Olympic Park was the scene of a pipe bomb explosion killing two people. It was one of four bombings committed by Eric Robert Rudolph

As the park reopened following the bombing.


More Information
Economic Normality Changed 7 Times 1945-2015  
Rising Income      Increased Foreign Competition Began 1970's Wage Stagnation      1980's Bring Less Financial Regulation, Slow Wage Growth
U.S. Financial Bailouts and Economic Recovery     Poverty Stuck at 15% Since 1984     Profit Growth Beats Wage Growth in New Century     Wellbeing Continuing Growing

  War on Terror begins the 4th U.S. Terror Episode Since 1900  Recent Decades Ranked By Problems helps with perspective.
 

Other Summaries1

Presidential Politics Party Politics and Presidential Elections from 1788 to 2012
Turning Points in American History
A Great Course by E. O'Donnell
American Dynasty Aristocracy, Fortune, Politics of Deceit in the House of Bushby K. Phillips  
Presidential Courage
Brave Leaders & How They Changed America 1789-1989 by M. Beschloss
Thomas Jefferson The Art of Power, 2012 by J. Meacham

Second Chance Three Presidents and the Crisis of America Superpower by Z. Brzezinski
Generations and The Fourth Turning
by W. Strauss and N. Howe
Current US Political Economy Controversies examine poverty, middle class stagnation and politics.

1 by K. Davis  summarized with editor comments in red by Walter Antoniotti  
of 21st Century Learning Products and all summaries are by Walter Antoniotti

Building America's Democratic Federalist Republic

1. The Early Colonial Period
2. Determining Political Power and "We the People"
3. Increasing We" of "We the People"
4. Thomas Jefferson Leader of the Opposition

5. Constitutional History of Our
Democratic Federalist Republic
6. Capitalistic Democracy Profitable Government