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|GEORGE WASHINGTON||Summary of Events2||The Politics|
1) A SPEEDY DEATH TO GENERAL WASHINGTON
2) Kick This Treaty To Hell
3) THE DAMNEDEST LIAR
4) HE MAY RETIRE WITH UNDIMINISHED GLORY
|Washington had been unanimously elected by the Electoral College in 1788 and 1792.||
Former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson hated the English, adored France,
and demanded retaliation. In 1793. not happy with his job and missing
Virginia, he quit and began to organize the Republicans who would opposed
Federalist leaders, Washington, Adams, and Hamilton.
Alexander Hamilton, who was always arguing with Jefferson over foreign policy and economics. He also felt America could not win a war with Britain.
Britain, at war
with France, was seizing U.S. ships trading with France.
In addition, London was reneging on its pledge made as part of the treaty ending the Revolutionary War to vacate forts in Oswego, Niagara, Detroit, and Michilmackinac. She was also arming Indians and spurring them to attack American settlers. These attacks were killing helpless women and children.
Trying to avoid a war with Great Britain that might "strangle the infant nation in its cradle," Washington secretly sent aristocratic Chief Justice John Jay to England to negotiate a peace treaty. Eventually word got out and many found some treaty demands humiliating. Article 12 of the treaty stated America could trade with the West Indies with only small ships really aggrieved Southerners as it severely hurt their exports. Another article stated the U.S. could not export products native to the islands. To make matters worse, a Provision Order issued later by Britain required U.S. ships carrying grain to France be stopped and the cargo confiscated. see Jay Treaty.
|A Virginia Republican ignored Washington's order to keep the contents of the treaty secrete and passed a copy to the French who saw that the contents were made public. When Hamilton defended the treaty in front of the New York City Hall he was stoned and left with a bloody face. In Boston, a British ship was set aflame. The net result was our First Party System||
Some wanted Washington impeached as cartoons depicted the President being chased out of town feeling the treaty's enactment was unconstitutional.
" A speedy Death to General Washington!" was title of another cartoon.
|To support the treaty powerful Federalist rolled into gear and stopped issuing ship insurance until the treaty was enacted. In Philadelphia, debtors were pressured by banks to support the treaty. By 1796, Britain had scrapped the Provision Order accepting Washington's version of the treaty excluding Article 12. The tide had turned in favor of the treaty.|
controlled house tried to withhold ninety thousand dollars needed to enact the Jay Treaty. John Adams feared a war with Britain might
result in a "civil war" between the Anglophile Northeast who
wanted to protect their manufacturing and the Southern
Francophiles more interested in exporting cotton.
The funding vote tie of 49 to 49 was surprisingly broken by Republican Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania who was chairing a Committee of the Whole. He committed political suicide by voting for the funding and against the wishes of his German American constituents who hated England. After the vote, Frederick was stabbed by his German-American brother-in-law.
In a letter to John Jay Washington stated he had survived "the Storm" and would never forget the "pernicious" people "disseminating the poison" against him. As Washington predicted, in 1812, America was powerful enough to get their way in a war with England.
Jeffersonian Edward Livingston of New York demanded Washington hand over all documents related to treaty bargaining. Limited access was granted and Washington said the only way to get unlimited access was to impeach him.
John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746– October 1, 1807) was an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly-independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania. from Wiki Peter Muhlenberg
1 From the 2007 first edition
10 Best and 10 Worst Presidents from Rant Political
|Summary of Events||The Politics||
More Summaries 2-8 pages
|5) RIVALRIES IRRITATED TO MADNESS||
Adams defeated Republican Thomas Jefferson by three electoral votes.
Living in Washington's shadow was not easy and Adam's complained that "Old Muttonhead" could not write a sentence without a few misspellings.
Adams had inherited the danger of a war with France's newest revolutionary regime called the "Directory." Because of the Jay Treaty, French privateers were ordered to seize and plunder U.S. ships.
Now Vice President Francophile Jefferson was made minister to France. Twelve new frigates were built to fortify the Eastern coast. The ultra-Federalist unsuccessfully demanded a fifteen thousand man army and said concerning the horrible French tyrants, the Republicans want to "lick" their "feet."
Hamilton had back Thomas Pickering in the 1796 election
because he could be
more easily controlled.
Adams kept Washington Cabinet fearing firing them would turn the world upside down.
Upon arriving in France, Jefferson advised the Directory to drag its feet
on a treaty as Adams would be a one term President.
|6) OH, THAT I WAS A SOLDIER||The French Foreign Minister tried to bribe an American envoy for what today would be about six million dollars and the reply was "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute." Outrage followed, but Adams never shared the ultra-Federalist zeal to face down the French. He attempted to keep the bribe secret but the Federalist made the information public. It became known as the XYZ Affair||
Many, like Quaker doctor George Logan, told Adams that the French wanted to talk. When Logan told the secretary of State the same thing, he was thrown out and the High Federalists got the Logan Act passed. To this day it bans U.S. citizens without official sanction from bargaining with foreign governments.
By 1798, talk of war was rampant and John Adams became a war leader. He enjoyed it. Always jealous of Washington's battlefield reputation, Adams could not resist the opportunity to portray a dashing military figure including a sword hanging from his waist. He had proclaimed a "warlike" spirit and congress passed the notorious Alien and Sedition Acts giving Adams the power of deportation. A congressman was arrested for anti-government writing, fined one thousand dollars, and jailed.
A new property tax was passed to pay for a twenty thousand man army.
Eventually Adams announced a new peace mission and the Federalists were none too pleased. It caused Adams to fall into a deep depression.
New U.S. citizens would vote Republican so Federalist extended the waiting period for citizenship to fourteen years.
|A British political cartoon depicting the affair: America is represented by the woman, who is being plundered by five Frenchmen. The figures grouped off to the right are other European countries; John Bull, representing Great Britain, sits laughing on a hill.|
|Ultra-Federalist war hawks thought Adams weak. Eventually he gave in and let them exacerbate differences with France for "electioneering purposes." By backing the Federalist taxes and military spending, Adams felt he was helping America acquire "monstrous fortunes."|
|7) ROCKS AND QUICKSAND ON ALL SIDES||
Hamilton asked Washington to denounce the peace mission but the Hero of
Mount Vernon was too tired to join the Federalist family feud. A month
before his death in late 1799, Washington wrote that it was "anxious and
painful" for him to see his cherished country moving "by hasty strides
to some awful crisis.
By the 1800 even the most self-absorbed Hamilton understood that the country's politics was becoming a struggle "between the rich and the poor."
In May the Republicans won in South Carolina and with it the votes needed to defeat Adams for reelection. Adams tried to regroup by finally firing some of his pro Hamilton high Federalist cabinet. He also abolished the Provisional Army which he considered a "wildest extravagance" of that "knight-errant."
Adam's response to political attacks from Jefferson stated that the real
problem was that Hamilton suffered from "a super-abundance of secretions which he could not find whores enough to draw off!"
The successful peace negotiations in France came too late for John Adams to be reelected and because of a tie, Thomas Jefferson beat not Adams but New York Republican Aaron Burr in a House of Reprehensive vote. Voting procedures would be changed by the 12th Amendment. see Election of1800
The Aurora published in Philadelphia printed that God had thrown Adams out like "polluted water."
To his death, Adams never understood why his making peace with France never carried the esteem brought by Washington's peace with Britain. He felt America must realize that "great is the guilt of an unjust war." see Quasi-War with France
8) THE MOST SPLENDID DIAMOND IN MY CROWN
Hamilton fighting his fatal
Aaron Burr (the depiction is inaccurate: only the two "seconds" actually
witnessed the duel) Wiki
Click to enlarge.
1 From the 2007 first edition
See Thomas Jefferson The Art of Power, 2012, by Jon Meacham an 8 page summary also covers the Washington and Adams Presidencies.
|ANDREW JACKSON||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|9) I WILL KILL IT!
|Life got off to a difficult beginning as Andrew
lost his parents and brothers by the age of 14 and he had to live on
family charity. In 1796 as newly admitted Tennessee's first congressman
lawyer Andrew Jackson arrived in Philadelphia with his pony tail wrapped
in deer skin. His victories at New Orleans and in Florida over the English
in the War of 1812 had made him the most idealized American since General Washington.
President John Quincy Adams1 easily lost his reelection bid to Andrew Jackson, who was dead set against extending the Second Bank of the United States charter and its condescending President, Nicholas Biddle. Jackson felt the bank had excessive power over farmers, mechanics, and others unconnected to the eastern ' " moneyed aristocracy" ' Land speculation losses in Tennessee made Jackson feel that "debt, bankers, and paper money --' "ragg money" '-- were all the devil's work." He felt the bank had used its ' "golden favors " ' to help Adams be elected. Largely owned by foreigners autocracy, he felt the bank was corrupt.
Biddle's First Bank of the United States had political problems and Jeffersonian anxiety about its power and lack of accountability caused Congress not to renew its charter. In 1816 a Second Bank of the United States with a twenty year charter was established. It was the federal government's fiscal agent. Loans to House and Senate members by the bank gave Biddle a valuable weapon against Jackson. A confrontation between Jackson and Biddle during which the President made it clear that he thought the bank unconstitutional occurred early in Jackson's second term
Jackson lost the1824 presidential election which went to the House because Jackson lacked an electoral college majority. Jackson insisted there was a electoral college ' " corrupt bargain" '-- between John Quincy Adams, who became President and Henry Clay, who became Secretary of State.
President Jackson blamed his wife Rachel's death a month after he won the 1928 election on election politics. Handbills had suggesting she was an "adulteress and whore" for not having been properly divorce when they married. 1 As his father before him, John Adams became only the second President not to attend his success inaugural.
A promissory note issued by the Second Bank of the United States, December 15, 1840, for the amount of $1,000. Wiki
|10) NOT A MAN OF FORCE||In his first annual message in December of 1829 Jackson denounced the bank as unable to keep a sound currency and unconstitutional even though the Supreme court 1819 ruled in favor of the bank. To fight Jackson, Biddle enlisted the friendly congressman to make a report countering Jackson's complaints about the bank and then used Bank funds to publish the report throughout the country.||Senator Henry Clay a friend of the Bank was chosen to oppose Jackson's 1832 reelection. "While a member of the House, Clay had been a well-paid director and council for the Bank He now claimed ' "no connection " 'with the Bank for a decade, but in fact, Biddle had just given him a quit five-thousand dollars." Before the election and thinking Jackson's reelection was to much to risk a veto, Biddle ask Congress for an early charter renewal.|
|11) I WAS BORN
FOR THE STORM
Day, 1832, the Senate and House voted to renew the charter the Second Bank
of the "United State." Most of Jackson's cabinet was against a clash with Biddle so
he got help from his wordsmith-tactician Amos Kendall to help. Amos became a
member of what became known as the President's "Kitchen Cabinet
drafted most of Jackson's hellfire message that vetoed the Bank's renewal.
Jackson's veto was sustained.
|Few Presidents before him vetoed bills and he was the first to do so simply because he did not like it. Neither the Senate the House got the two-thirds votes necessary to overturn Jackson's veto of there charter renewal. Biddle "flung open the cash draws" to stop the President's reelection in 1932, but Jackson and Van Buren with 55% of the vote easily beat Clay. As Jackson predicted Clay would not do well west of the mountains and south of the Potomac. Clay only won Kentucky.|
|12) WHO WOULD HAVE
HAD THE COURAGE
|Biddle had not given up
on charter renewal of the bank and called
for a run on moneyed institution to cause a shortage of funds and
an outcry for a new charter. Jackson countered with a plan to move all
federal funds from the Bank to "pet
banks". But William Duane at
Treasury refused because Biddle would crush the use of pet banks.
Jackson's Cabinet sided with Duane and when Duane refused to resign,
Jackson fired him. When no one seriously objected, the power of the
President was again enhanced.
"When the deposits were pulled, the "Boston Post said Jackson was like Jesus expelling the money-changers from the temple." Biddle tightened credit hoping to excite the public. This caused distress among New York merchants who went to the White House and complained. At one point Jackson said ' "Go to the monster!... Go to Nicholas Biddle! We have no money here..,. Biddle has all the money." ' Biddle's efforts resulted in a Senate censure of President Jackson on March 28, 1834. Lead by Clay, the Whigs began blocking all Jackson governing efforts. When Biddle refused to let Jackson withdrew pension funds, Jackson stopped paying pensions and told veterans to blame Biddle's bank and the Whigs who defend it. In November the voters turned the Whigs out.
Biddle opened a new bank but that didn't go well and when sued by bank shareholders, he escaped to his home in the country with an immense fortune. He beat criminal indictment but was dead by fifty-eight.
audacity [in firing Duane] gave later Presidents more power. Had he not redefined the veto
and broadened expectations of what Presidents owed the people, the
American future would have been very different."
This democratic cartoon from 1833 shows Jackson destroying the bank with the approval of an Uncle Sam like figure to the far right and annoyance of the bank's President shown as the Devil. WIKIPEDIA Click to enlarge.
Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the monster Bank. "The Bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" from Wiki
|ABRAHAM LINCOLN||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|13) I AM GOING TO BE BEATEN
|In August of 1864 near
the end of his first term as President Lincoln
road his horse home from the Whitehouse an attempted assassination failed
as the bullet creased his stovepipe hat. Since the election he had
been entering Washington at night in a disguise.
"....a Lincoln admirer sent the President a copy of Old Hickory's letter warning that the Southern states might succeed over the ' "pretext" ' of slavery. In it Jackson sputtered that ' "ambitious men who would involve their country in civil wars, ' " should be sent to ' "Haman's gallows." '
"Querulous editorials he [Lincoln] dismissed by saying ' " I know more about that than any of them." (editors note. President Obama mad a similar statement about his ability compared to those around him) "... Lincoln resembled Jackson most of all in the strength of his personal will."
|Abraham Lincoln was more melancholy than
usual that summer in Washington where in faced both the insects that plagued
the city and the stench of dismal canal and the nearby swamps. Reelection
was not assured "... his political advisors told him that his
Emancipation Proclamation was dragging him down:" as
Northerners were willing to fight to preserve the union but not to free the slaves.
Abe was a Democrat who became a Whig. Andrew Jackson had followed the same path to the White House. "For Lincoln, Whigs like John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay embodied the rational intellect, -- Jackson the ' "burning appetite" ' of the mob--people like his father, who thought reading was loafing." In 1860, wanting to be a down-to-earth electable candidate like Jackson, Lincoln was not presented as the ...' "well-to-do lawyer he had become, but instead as ' "Honest Abe the Rail Splitter. " '
|14) TOO ANGELIC FOR THIS DEVILS REBELLION||Lincoln ran for President in 1860 on a
platform to leave slavery in tact where it was already in force. When
Congress freed slaves that had escaped to the North in 1862 Lincoln was
rebuffed in an attempt to pay the South for slowly phasing out
The war was not going well in the summer of 1864 as Grant was stalled in his move toward Atlanta. Grant had lost 6,000 men in Virginia and the South prepared to raid Washington. The expected raid put Pressure on Lincoln to peruse peace. New York Times Publisher Horace Greeley published an open letter t the President: " Our bleeding, bankrupt, almost dying country... shudders at the prospect of fresh conscriptions...and of new rivers of human blood." The attack ailed due to Union reinforcements and tactical mistakes by the South.
|Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation freeing
all slaves on New Year's day of 1863 was a "...military
measure..." to stop slaves them helping the South. It was a political
worry and he stated that could he save the Union with freeing the slaves,
"... I would do so." Despite such efforts, his party was killed
in the 1862 midterm elections. Radicals passed the Wade-Davis bill to
vanquish Lincolns plans not to punish the South but Lincoln let it die
without signature. When Wade and Davis tried to ditch Lincoln for General
Grant, Grant supported Lincoln.
More political trouble came the summer of 1863 when Lincoln asked for five hundred thousands men and General Sherman said one less soldier would lose Lincoln votes among those already serving. A new draft disallowed men from avoiding service with a $300 substitute, though conscious objectors were allowed. Many thought this new draft would kill his reelection but Lincoln thought what good is an election without a country.
|15) A WELL-MEANING BABOON
|After his party lost the 1862 midterm
election Lincoln fired General McClellan. Now he was Lincoln's likely
Democratic opponent favored by wealthy Democrats who favored the
general because he would
not fight the South over slavery.
Party leaders provided McClellan with a furnished townhouse in New York and railroad equities in hopes he could unite the Copperheads, who wanted immediate peace and with the War Democrats who were willing to wait. Lincoln was in political trouble because he had made known his belief that peace with slavery was not possible and he would not change his mind because slavery must be finished. About 200,000 slaves had fled the South after the Emancipation Proclamation.
|By 1864, much of the
country was tired of the war and against Lincoln concerning the slavery issue. After McClellan's
nomination, political bosses thought Lincoln would win only
three states and asked him to consider not running.
A "moist-eyed and despondent" Lincoln told General Carl Schurz ...' "God knows I have tried very hard... And now to have it said by men who have been my friends ... that I have been seduced by ... power, and that I have been doing this and that unscrupulous thing... only to keep myself in office!" ' Lincoln would not step down!
|16) THE COUNTRY WILL BE SAVED
1864 presidential election results
|Before the Lincolns came to Washington, wife Mary had fired Abe's ambitions. But the lose of their son Willie in 1862 and the war had gotten to her. Dressed in permanent black, she feared critics would force her son Robert to be drafted and he would be captured and killed. She was obsessed that her husband would be assassinated.||Lincoln spent much time that summer hoping for help from the Bible . "Suddenly Lincoln regained his political balance." He may have been helped by the Democratic platform designed by Copperheads who wanted the war over. The South could do what they want. This enraged many McClellan backers. Lincoln won easily.|
|THEODORE ROOSEVELT||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|17) I SEE DYNAMITE
was nervous about the coming 1904 election because he had gotten the job when
William McKinley had been murdered, and no
President-by-succession had ever won election on his own..
"In December of 1901 TR HAD showed the nation he was no McKinley when he wrote to Congress about the ' "grave evils" ' of corporate monopolies. He knew that ' "Americans resented eastern bankers and corporate trusts whose dictates on railroad rates and routs could destroy towns and farms." ' Ohio Senator Hanna, who never wanted TR as McKinley's running mate was stung when he found out Roosevelt had sued to break up Northern Securities. Hearing the shocking news, J. P. Morgan's son Pierpont Morgan bought shares in his own gigantic trust to avert financial panic. see trusts
|President McKinley had
won reelection in 1900 by again beating William Jennings Bryant who was
known as ' " Boy Orator of
the Planes." ' Ohio Senator Mark Hanna had been McKinley's chief promoter
and sold him like ' "patent medicine," 'calling him an '
"Advance Agent of Prosperity" ' and braking all records in
campaign contribution. The 7 million dollars was raised by requiring big business
to fork over 4% of corporate assets. McKinley won by a landslide. Hanna
would warn TR not to run for reelection.
Roosevelt wrote a friend that "...his ' "chief fight" ' as President was against the new plutocracy, ' "as unattractive now as in the days of Carthage."
"Like both Adams and Andrew Jackson, he was taking a large risk by challenging the citadels of wealth and power,"
|18 BLACK STORM||"... in the fall of
1902, he tried to stop the
coal strike that threatened, more than any event since
the Civil War, to divide the country." For months, over 100,000 Pennsylvanian
miners had been striking. There was sabotage, riots and murder. The leader
of the United Mines Workers suggested a Presidential commission but
railroad man George Bear refused to bargain with ' " instigators of violence
and crime." '
Fearing ' "... the most terrible riots the country had ever seen..." ' Roosevelt got seventy-two year old ex--Commanding General of the U.S. Army John Schofield, to agree to, if necessary, to seize the mines using ten thousand troops. Roosevelt was please that the General, his outdated skullcap and whiskers, did not look like a ' " military dictator" '.
Using the threat of troops to nationalize the coal industry, TR got J.P. Morgan, still fending off the National Securities suit, to use his influence to have a commission resolve the differences.
Roosevelt knew he might be braking the Constitution by seizing property without due process of law but he felt that ' :"The Constitution was made for the people, and not the people for the Constitution." '
|19) A ROUGH-AND TUMBLE-MAN||Liking T.R.'s dexterity, the Republicans did well in the 1902 midterm elections. Roosevelt had the morals of a ' "green-grocer" ' and he felt easy divorces were "...were dragging the country into the ' "barnyard." '||In 1903 Roosevelt asked Congress for a Department of Commerce. It was the request of big business who wanted to insure labor was watched as closely as business. Wealthy Republicans, lead by Ohio Senator Mark Hanna, were unable to stop Roosevelt's nomination in 1904. The senator then suddenly dies from typhoid fever.|
|20) I UPSET THEM ALL||In March of 1904 the
Supreme Court ruled 5 to 4 that Northern Securities must be dissolved. Of Judge Oliver Wendell Holmes who
voted in the negative, Roosevelt said, he could carve ' "a judge with
more backbone than that" from a "banana." '
Roosevelt felt he had amended capitalism to save it . "Better to take it from him than ' "some Bryan" ' who would ' " ride over them roughshod." '
Secretary of State John Hay gave a ring belonging to Lincoln to the new President as an inauguration gift. It was said to contain one of Lincoln's hairs and TR said it would remind him ' " to put human rights above property rights." '
|To dampen Roosevelt's radicalism
chose McKinley Conservative Senator Charles Fairbanks of Indiana as
the 1904 V.P. running mate. Roosevelt wasn't happy. Fear of Roosevelt
diminished and rich Republicans like Morgan and Harriman
gave $150,000 and $250,000 respectively to his campaign.
..."T.R. lauded the "man in the arena," who if he failed, at least did so "by daring greatly." '
One of FDR's sons told the author of this book that ' "My father spent his whole adult life competing with T.R.." '
|FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|21) WE MUST PROTECT THE CHIEF||
Pictured here Winston Churchill giving his
'V' sign—on 20 May 1940, just ten days after Churchill became Prime
Minister, German troops reached the
English Channel. Visiting to offer congratulations,
ambassador Kennedy found Churchill ' "
drinking a Scotch highball, which I felt was indeed not the first one he
had drunk that night.
|In September of 1939, after Britain
declared war against Hitler, FDR began secret corresponding with Winston
Churchill the new First Lord of the Britain Navy. This raised the suspicions
of U.S. Ambassador in London Joseph Kennedy who was determined to stop
another fruitless war that could threatened his three sons, Joe, Jack, and
Tyler Kent, a clerk in Kennedy's operation, discovered the secret messages between the two leaders and convinced they were dragging the U.S. into the war on behalf of the Communists and Jews, he planned to make the messages public right before the FDR's reelection. His apartment was raided by Scotland Yard. They found many documents including that morning message from Churchill to Roosevelt. Kent's Jewish mistress in the bedroom. Kent was tried in London where the matter of their communication could be kept quiet under the Officials Secrets Act.
Roosevelt was pondering what to do about a Supreme Court ruling that had stopped the FBI from wireless wiretapping. J. Hoover argued that such an action would stop the FBI from listening to Nazi plans to blow up the Queen Mary and other such dangers. President Roosevelt was interested other information like what the Nazi's knew of Kent's information. Roosevelt signed the secret orders giving Hoover blanket authority " ' to secure information by listening devices" '. Attorney General Robert Jackson thought the order was illegal but he did not resign. He later wrote that Roosevelt usually acted in terms of ' "right and wrong" ' not ' " legal and illegal." '
|22) GLOOM PERSONIFIED||
FDR's wife Eleanor almost divorced in 1918 when she found his love letters to Lucy Mercer, her social secretary. Needing more adoration than Eleanor would or could provide and with no close male friends, Franklin, by 1940 relied on two women. Others were suspected. Lucy made Time magazine's Top Ten Mistresses list.
|'Hoover widened his net to include
anti-Roosevelt Senators and bitter isolationist Charles
Lindberg." Joe Kennedy thought Lindberg views '
"honest" ', FDR was convinced Charles was a Nazi.
which side was correct
' "By the end of his second term FDR's Hyde Park branch of the Roosevelt's was no longer on speaking terms with those from Oyster Bay." ' Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. had wanted to follow his father to the Presidency. He and his sister Alice Longworth were members of the isolationist lobby and not happy with President Roosevelt.
FDR defeated Republican Wendell Willkie who was estranged from his Indian wife Billie and living with New York Tribune book editor Irita Bradford Van Doren. Billie agreed to campaign foe Wendell and share his hotel room. Asked about it she said, '" Politics makes strange bedfellows." '
|23) SALUTE YOUR CESAR||
Getting lend lease of fifty destroyers for Britain through Congress was proving difficult so FDR asked Attorney General Robert Jackson if he could just do it and again Jackson said OK to a difficult issue. It was announced on September 3, 1940. Willkie said it was dictatorial and FDR said Jefferson didn't ask Congress when he made the Louisiana purchase. By the end of September Japan had joined Hitler and Mussolini. Pictured here President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease bill to give aid to Britain and China (1941)
|Roosevelt's Democratic nomination was apposed
by 148 delegates including Joe Kennedy who like many, opposed the U. S.
entering the war. The democratic platform opposed entry but FDR got
them to add unless attacked. Both McKinley and Wilson had used attacks to enter a
Hitler's chief diplomat was funneling money to isolationists on Capital Hill. Roosevelt had a recorder installed in the Oval Office hoping to stop Trying to stop leaks like the false claim he would defend Europe form Germany. The recorder was playing when Roosevelt was slinging mud about Willkie's affair with Van Doren.
By October the expected Republican surge came as Hitler was stalled and Willkey was gaining because of Republican charges that Roosevelt was making secret deals to get America into the war. Powerful union leader John L. Lewis used radio to tell America that Roosevelt was scheming and would make "cannon fodder" out of their sons.
Joe Kennedy's family returned to America as German bombs were hitting London, and Kennedy..." was ready to put "twenty-five million Catholics votes behind Willkie ..."
|24) WE HAVE AVOIDED A PUTSCH
|Joe Kennedy was extremely successful at a
young age and was extremely patriotic.
Obsessed with leaving each of his nine children with millions of dollars, he felt his small capitalistic class was safer under Hitler than under Churchill or the communists.
Kennedy was an Intimate and close friend of writer/politician Clare Boothe Luce. In a letter before his planned radio Presidential campaign endorsement of one of the candidates, she begged Kennedy not to indorse Roosevelt as she was "terribly frightened for this country..."
Gallop polls in 1940 revealed that Americans felt the most pressing problem facing the country by far(47%) was staying out of the war. But Roosevelt knew that especially in a time of crisis he was to lead and not to follow the American public. "Roosevelt was inspired by an almost mystical belief in the glory and power of Presidential leadership...." Pictured here Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of China (left), Roosevelt (middle), and Winston Churchill (right) at the 1943 Cairo Conference.
|Upon returning to
Washington the Summer
in 1940, Kennedy entered the Oval Office and found the
President using a cocktail shaker. Kennedy was upset at being shut out from the destroyer
lend lease deal but FDR blamed it on the State Department.
People wanted Willkie to bargain with Hitler and they weren't happy with the lottery for the America's first peace time draft involving men twenty-one to thirty-five. Isolationist said those who voted for the draft would lose reelection. Roosevelt was relieved when Republican opponent Willkie endorsed some form of military service.
Kennedy endorsed FDR saying the war involvement charges were false. Germany was very upset because they felt FDR could mold America's ' " easily excitable character" ' and bring the United States into the war.
After the election, FDR enlisted Willkie's public support to help England. His supporters feared hire taxes and loss of their businesses and they threatened Willkie who, ' " hurt and worried" ' agreed to help Roosevelt.
Kennedy felt he deserved an important post after the attack on Pearl Harbor had gotten America into war. But his old reputation of being anti-Semitic and his pro-appeasement of Hitler kept the President at arms length.
By 1944 Joe Kennedy was agonizing over the heroic death eldest son Joe who died while flying over the English Channel. Secretly supporting FDR's Republican opponent Thomas Dewey, Kennedy still went to tell the President that Irish-Americans feared FDR was ' "Jewish Controlled." '
|HARRY S. TRUMAN||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|25) NO PEOPLE
EXCEPT THE HEBREWS
|President Harry S, Truman was surprised when Secretary of State General George Marshall, architect of the WWII victory in Europe and never went to parties, showed up at his 1948 small sixty-forth birthday party. Truman thought of Marshall as the ' " great one of the age." ' Marshal praised Truman for his integrity and courage in making decisions that only had the country's best interest at heart.||Disgruntled by postwar adjustments and
Truman's stumbles after FDR's death, 1946 voters had given Congress to the Republicans. Truman's approval rating had dropped to
the mid-thirties by the spring of 1948 and pollsters said he would lose reelection.
With a new Jewish state was about to be born, Truman's met with Whitehouse council Clifford Clark and Secretary of State George Marshall. Clifford argued that we should immediately recognize Israel to help protect her from five vastly larger Arab armies ready to pounce. He reasoned that Israel would be a reliable democratic state in the ' "unstable Middle East" '. Also, America was trying to stop Russia from conquering the worlds plus America had also always felt a ' " a great obligation" ' to stop persecution. Marshal argued that Israel didn't stand a chance and we could not come to her aid. "No longer lauding his ' "integrity," ' Marshall unbranded the President (in what Clifford found ' "a righteous Goddamned Baptist tone" ' for playing politics with the Middle East to attract Jewish voters." Marshal then said he wouldn't vote for Truman if he followed Clifford's advise and a shaken condemned Truman adjourned the meeting. This and other heated debates from both sides put pressures on Truman.
|26)THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME||The Britain
controlled 1947 Palestine and they stopped the Jewish immigrant ship
SS Exodus from arriving
in Palestine where Jews from all over Europe were hoping to form a new
Jewish state. World wide outrage resulted.
Britain would soon be leaving Palestine and a UN committee had proposed the area be partition into Jewish and Arab states with an economic union. Assistant Secretary of State Loy Henderson felt American involvement would jeopardize oil supplies and the entire Arab world would become America's enemy. President Truman's Jewess business associations and good heart were to face off with his Midwestern anti-Semitic background.
FDR's former Treasury Secretary and unobservant Jew
Henry Morgenthau called Truman to complain about the
A dyspeptic Truman complained about Zionists in his diary. " [Morgenthau had] no business calling me. The Jews have no sense of proportion, nor do they have any judgment on world affairs... The Jews, I find are very, very, selfish." They care not how many Estonians, Latvians, Finns., Poles, Yugoslavs or Greeks get murdered or mistreated... as long as the Jews get special treatment. Yet when they have power--physical, financial, or political--neither Hitler nor Stalin has anything on them for cruelty or mistreatment to the underdog."
|27 HOW COULD THIS HAVE HAPPENED?||Soon Truman's
good friend Eddie Jacobson from the Army and Kansas City implored
him to back the new Jewish and Arab states in Palestine. Truman warned
that financial and military support would not be possible.
After the partition into two states, Truman's arms embargo to the Middle East hurt Israel as Britain was arming the Arabs. But Jewish friends of Hoover got lax FBI enforcement of the embargo.
|The State Department had been working for years with the Arab states
to have the Palestine partition fail. Some felt U.S. troops
in Europe to face off the Communists might be needed in the Middle East.
Truman wavering on support of any kind for the partition, and Chaim
Weizmann a Zionist patriarch rushed to New York hoping to see the
President. Truman's friend Eddie Jacobson was asked to help and he sent
Truman a wire saying ' "I have asked very little from you in the way
of favors during all our years of friendship, but I am begging you to see
Dr. Weizmann as soon as possible." Tired of Zionist ' "
...badgering" ' the President wired Eddie that the Palestine problem was
probably ' "not solvable." ' Jacobson flew to New York and got the
proposed meeting arranged by using a private presidential meeting. At
the secret meeting with Weizmann, Truman agreed to support the partition. Before the President could act his U.N. Ambassador
Marshall upset the apple cart by telling the Security Council that a peaceful
partition was not possible and the U.N. should rule Palestine. Truman
would not accept that his Secretary of State George Marshal knew what was
happening. Clifford disagreed and thought the President so naive that he
questioned a second term for his boss.
Leading up to the UN vote, Truman ordered the UN envoys from the U.S. not to use improper pressure and anger the Arabs. The first vote failed by one vote, Clark Clifford got Truman to let his aids lobby for partition and the final vote easily passed. "Complaining of pressure from Washington, Arab delegates walked out." Truman warned a pro-Zionist New York Congressman after the initiative passed that "the pressure boys almost beat themselves... I don't do business that way."
|28) I AM Cyrus
|Truman had decided that
the State Department had '... put the Jews in the same category as
Chinamen and Negroes" and was ready to listen.
By May of 1948 Clifford had reported to President Truman that the Jews in Palestine were showing ' " unexpected military strength." '
Weizmann informed Eddie Jacobson who informed the President that a Jewish State would
be proclaimed when the British left Palestine and that immediate
recognition by the United States was vital. Truman in a secret message,
informed Weizmann that he would make it so. Not knowing of Truman's
actions the State Department threaten the Zionists to relent their
The President and Marshall had it out over immediate recognition. Truman won and Marshal sent someone to stop the United States U.N. delegation from reigning in mass. The Jewish State was declare, Truman recognize it, and Chaim Weizmann became its first President of Israel.
|JOHN F. KENNEDY||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|29) THEY NEVER SHOW PASSION||
Aide and friend Ted Sorensen conceded that as a Congressman, Senator and presidential candidate Jack Kennedy had not given civil rights much thought. He steered away from integration during the long campaign by saying as a Senator, he had nothing to do with the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court integration ruling. Negroes like base ball star Jackie Robinson wanted nothing to do with him and winning the Solid South could prove difficult to Kennedy.
JFK won the 1960 close election by getting 90% of the Negro vote because he promised to help them have full equality. Fearing a strong backlash from Southerners and conservatives caused him to acted slowly. A May of 1963 Birmingham, Alabama riot resulted in smashed cars and burned buildings. It was America's most segregated. This got Whitehouse attention. Some Negroes were getting interested in the more aggressive Black Panther movement and Alabama Governor George Wallace was about to try and stop two Negroes from integrating his state university.
Lt. Kennedy on his navy patrol boat PT-109
By 1959 Kennedy was changing his mind. "Midterm Congressional
victories had shifted the Democratic party's center of gravity toward
Northern big cities. And with his recovery from a massive heart attack,
Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson was planning to base his own
Presidential candidacy on the very white Southerners Kennedy had been
wooing." Dropping his Southern strategy, his attempt to
set up a
meeting with Marti Luther King, Jr. received no response. He
campaigned for Negroes rights anyway and his brother fear that liberal
Democrats might go for sentimental favorite Adlai Stevenson.
Bobby Kennedy told aids to do what it takes to get Negroes support. The Kennedy's got singer Harry Bellefonte to arrange a meeting with King The meeting went only well. Democrats stopped more of liberal a rebellion by countering a platform that promised the moon on Civil Rights by nominating the party's most famous white Southerner Senator Lyndon Johnson as Kennedy's running mate.
By DAVID M. OSHINSKY
"In 1961, at a late-night supper in the White House living quarters, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson accosted Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in front of embarrassed friends and officials. ''Bobby, you do not like me,'' Johnson declared. ''Your brother likes me. Your sister-in-law likes me. Your daddy likes me. But you don't like me. Now, why? Why don't you like me?'' Kennedy did not respond to Johnson that evening, but his feelings were clear. As Jeff Shesol notes in ''Mutual Contempt,'' a penetrating and richly detailed account of the ''feud'' that shaped the 60's, Kennedy despised Johnson with a ferocity that startled many observers, while Johnson harbored fears of Kennedy that bordered on paranoia. '
30) GO GET HIM JOHNNY BOY
|"Dishearten by Kennedy's foot-dragging, civil rights leaders declared ' "Project Freedom Ride 1961 " ' to test bus terminal integration and hopefully ' "create a crisis" ' to get Kennedy moving. Soon a white mob beat Freedom Riders and burned their Greyhound bus in Anniston, Alabama. In Birmingham, they were again beaten as "the notorious public safety chief Eugene 'Bull' Connor held back his police force so that Ku Klux Klansmen could brutalize the outsiders without interference". Protesters were arrested. Civil rights leaders had their crisis.||
During the early days of the Freedom Riders, Attorney General Bobby Kennedy's deputy learn that the President thought the Freedom Riders were ' "a pain in the ass." '
The President had a mild response to the Freedom Rider problems and the New York Times remarked the response ' " did not sound like a profile in political courage." ' This bothered the President.
Click to enlarge most pictures.
Bobby's attempt to get protection assistance for the Freedom Riders from Alabama Governor Patterson had failed so fearing the murder of Martin Luther King, Jr. while on a speaking engagement on Sunday, May 21, Bobby provided fifty U.S. Marshals for protection.
When the public heard the news that the University of Mississippi had been integrated, they rioted and resistance reached the point of armed insurrection. Kennedy called up the Army that he later felt was very slow to react. Soon the city of about 7,500 was guarded by 30,000 U.S. Army personal and Mississippi National Guardsmen.
Eventually, the situation quieted down and a few week later President Kennedy, learning of the Soviet missile in Cuban, asked if they could hit Oxford, Mississippi.
US Army trucks loaded with steel-helmeted US Marshals roll across the University of Mississippi campus on October 3, 1962.
In the Summer of 1962, the Supreme Court order the integration of the University of Mississippi. Veteran James Meredith would be the first black student as the result of a legal battle he launched after realizing Kennedy, in spite of his inaugural address, had hardly mentioned civil rights.
For more pictures visit Source
|The Kennedy's were trying to avoid the national controversy similar to the one caused when President Eisenhower integrated Arkansas's Little Rock Central High School in 1957. But again, the state Governor not only failed to help, but reneged on a deal designed to make him look good to his voters. President Kennedy federalized the Mississippi National Guard, made the Governor realize that as President, he had taped their entire deal which, if revealed, would make the Governor look bad. Barnett made his speech announcing Meredith had been registered and then pulled one more fast one by removing state troopers protecting Meredith. President Kennedy was so distraught from the entire ordeal that he summoned his "well-concealed amphetamine doctor known as ' "Doctor Feelgood." '|
31) IT'S GOING TO BE A CIVIL WAR.
|After the Birmingham incident,
Bobby Kennedy's aid Burke Marshal tried to work out an agreement
with Birmingham's white businessmen and Martin Luther King who wanted
"...integrated lunchrooms, bathrooms and drinking fountains plus more
black jobs, a biracial committee on desegregation and the dropping of all
charges against the protesters." Marshall got King to agree to a deal
but maverick minister Fred Shuttlesworth wouldn't agree and
threatened a march without King. Then Birmingham retroactively
increased the release bond for each of the held protesters to $2,500 and
more demonstrations were threatened by King's brother A.D. Then A.D.'s
house was bombed and a bomb was thrown outside the motel room housing Dr.
King. A friend of Bobby Kennedy's said even the attitude of servants had
|"Before the Birmingham,
only four percent of Americans had considered civil rights to be the
country's number-one problem. After Bull Connor's dogs attacked
protesters, the figure skyrocketed to the fifty-two percent."
The president told the nation he was sending riot control troops to military bases near Birmingham but unlike Bobby he was not ready to make Civil Rights a crusade.
The President tried to convince Alabama Governor Wallace that King's nonviolent approach was better than that of Malcolm X and the Black Muslims but Wallace responded that King and Shuttlesworth were competing over ' " who could go to bed with the most nigger women-- and white and red women too!" '
The white house was trying to move the civil rights problem into the
courts before someone got killed. They tried to get V.P. Johnson involved
with a civil rights bill but he was upset about being ignored. The courts ordered
the University of Alabama integrated, and Governor Wallace was made to look
foolish in an attempt to stop the student entry into the University. The next day Kennedy made a televised speech to the nation framing the
civil rights movement ' "in moral terms." ' Black American then
realized the President had changed.
Reverend "Fred" Shuttlesworth
Early activist Rosa Parks with King helped King's 1955 efforts to end Montgomery bus segregation. He was victorious as a United States District Court rules in Browder v. Gayle that racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses was illegal.. King's role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement
|32)A MAN TAKES A STAND||"The week after Kennedy's
civil rights speech three dozen American cities violently erupted. Kennedy fearing
problems tried to stop a planned civil right demonstration on the capital
grounds and when that failed managed to get it moved to the more easily
controlled Lincoln Memorial. There, the peaceful "I have
a dream" speech, with Abe in the background inspired many and help the civil rights cause.
The first penalty for backing
civil rights came one day after Kennedy's civil rights speech as Democrats
killed a routine Administration public works bill. A Harris poll showed Northern Irish, Polish, and Italian Americans
might turn Republican.
Texas was a key political state for the coming 1964 election and tickets for a Kennedy Friday, November 22 speech in Austin were going so slowly that "Lyndon Johnson had to call in some chits so that JFK would not be embarrassed in his [Johnon's] home state." JFK knew that Dallas was the stop before Austin. It was hostile terrain and to make light of this the soon the be President Johnson planned to male a joke as part of his introduction to JFK in Austin.
' " Mr. President, we're glad you made it out of Dallas alive." '
|Editor's Note: For years it has been known that JFK din not yield to pressure from LBJ and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to bomb Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis. Documents released after the fall of Communism and after this book was written indicate Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev planned to retaliated with a major nuclear attack. This knowledge moved him up on my list of great President.|
|RONALD REAGAN||Summary of Events||The Politics|
|33) WE WIN, THEY LOSE||
The summer of 1979 had unemployment and inflation soaring
giving candidate Ronald Reagan a thirty point lead. As the election
approached the lead dissipated as President Jimmy Carter
claimed Reagan would ' "push the nuclear button." ' A poor debate by the
President and his inability to free fifty-two hostages held by Iran caused
undecided voters to stampede to Reagan.
Asked about detente at his first press conference, Regan stated "Well, so far detent has been a one way street that the Soviet Union has used to pursue its own aims," with the right ." He would negotiate but they sought a ' "one- world Communist state," ' with ' "the right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat." ' " No presidency since at least Kennedy had talked so tough about the Kremlin in public."
President Reagan survived an early assassination attempt. He wouldn't go to Sunday church though he took the Bible literally, believed in the Messiah's second coming, and the imminence of Armageddon.
California Governor Reagan was always pushing President
Richard Nixon to be tougher on Communism and when the UN expelled
Taiwan for Communist China Reagan was so angry that he implored Nixon
to ' "get the hell out of that Kangaroo court." '
Nixon thought of himself as middleman for President elects Reagan's activities with the Soviets and Nixon pushed for a Secretary of State who would cut him in on foreign policy decisions. Nixon was pleased with Alexander Haig who he describes as ' " the meanest, toughest, most ambitious son of a bitch I ever knew." '
Reagan dismissed Soviet talks about negotiation and Russia knew he would go to the limit. Reagan use the hot line created by Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev to warn Russia of the dire consequences that could result if they got too aggressive during Polish martial law caused by Solidarity union activities. Their maverick leader Lech Walesa had been arrested.
1980 strike at Gdańsk Shipyard, birthplace of Solidarity.
|34) IT LEFT ME GREATLY DEPRESSED||
elections Reagan faced a severe recession and a public that would rather
have a nuclear arms freeze than a arms build up that might be
followed by a negotiated verifiable arms reduction.
In a surprise to most people around him Reagan announced the idea of a $17 billion missile defense system to protect U.S. cities from Russian attack. Called Star Wars, critics called it a harebrained no work system.
America had picked up covert activities against the Soviets on every continent and planned a big military exercise in the Pacific Northwest. Pershing missiles soon to be deployed in Europe had made the Soviets vulnerable to a sneak attack from the U.S.
The Soviets shot down a Korean airliner near Japan causing Regan to announce it was them against the world. Tensions were high on both sides.
The President depressed after an advanced showing of the TV movie The Day After which depicted Lawrence, Kansas the day after a nuclear war with the Soviets.
Having set the stage, Reagan very quietly had Secretary of State George Shultz set up a White
House meeting with the Soviet ambassador to make sure he knew that
Regan's hard line didn't mean he would not negotiate. As a token of good
faith Reagan asked for and received the freedom of some religious
people who had taken refuge in the U.S. Moscow embassy. This did not stop Reagan
was referring to the Soviet Union as the ' "evil empire." '
Wife and confidant Nancy agreed the President should quite public fears with
an address to the nation. President Reagan told the world that it was
now a much safer place now that the Kremlin could not ' "underestimate our strength or question our
Reagan really felt good because of his reelection and because the Joint Chiefs of Staff assured him America had never better able to protect herself.
|President Reagan delivering the March 23,
1983 speech initiating SDI
|35) DON'T WORRY THAT I'VE LOST MY BEARINGS||
President Reagan beleaved that the book of Revelations predicted that "...a star from heaven fell on the water" and "men died of the water..." ' and he told aids that the Bible had predicted the disaster. This aerial view of the damaged core and roof of the turbine hall at the photo center. The adjacent reactor 3 (image lower left) shows minor fire damage.
|A November 19, 1985
Iceland meeting of President Reagan
met and new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Reagan told him straight
out that Americans detested Soviet world empire ambitions and they could
either reduce their nuclear arms or get ready for a new arms race. '
"Shocked and offended by Reagan's threat, Gorbachev told his staff,
"I have met a caveman! A dinosaur" ' As the meeting wore on, the
arguments became more friendly. Reagan suggest they cut nuclear arms 50%
and then talked about the U.S. deploring Star Wars.
Eventually Gorbachev agree to Reagan's proposed cut in nuclear arms and the site verified elimination of U.S. based European intermediate-range missiles. Star Wars would be the clincher. Reagan new the Soviets couldn't afford it so rather than let them off the hook and drop the program to get a treaty, he let the talks brake down.
1985 Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev
|36) A MIRACLE HAS TAKEN PLACE||
November of 1986 the world learned that that proceed from secret U.S. arms sales to Iran
had been used to finance the Nicaraguan ' "Contras. " ' Congress
had cut off funding to those fighting the country's Marxist government. At
76 Reagan was showing the signs of his age. The last thing he needed
was the Contra
affair scandal that could cost him the Presidency.
During a 1987 speech
near the West Berlin Brandenburg Gate Reagan dramatically yelled '
" Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall." ' With Democratic control
of the Senate and making the possibility of Star Wars was extremely low, Gorbachev
agreed to a ban on intermediate rang missiles.
Reagan was asked during his 1986 Moscow visit if he
still thought of
Russia as an evil empire. He said ' " No I was talking about another
time, another era." '
1986 View of graffiti
art from the West side
of the wall's infamous "death strip"
More Concise History
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