Brave Leaders and How They Changed America
by Michael Beschloss provided by textbooksfree.org Read horizontally.
|Editor's notes: 1) Presidents elected on even decades like 1990, 2000, off year elections of 1992, 2014...2) Pictures are from Wikipedia and the Internet can often be enlarged with a click.3) Editorial comments are in red font. Return to Part 1 Go to Part 2 for TR, FDR, HST, JFK, and RR|
I SEE DYNAMITE
In December of 1901 TR had showed the nation he was no McKinley when he wrote to Congress about the ' "grave evils" ' of corporate monopolies. He knew that ' "Americans resented eastern bankers and corporate trusts whose dictates on railroad rates and routs could destroy towns and farms." ' Ohio Senator Hanna, who never wanted TR as McKinley's running mate, was stung when he found out Roosevelt had sued to break-up Northern Securities. Hearing the shocking news J. P. Morgan's son Pierpont Morgan bought shares in his own gigantic trust to avert a financial panic. see trusts Excerpt from-Wealth Against Commonwealth,1894
President McKinley had won reelection in 1900 by again beating William Jennings Bryant who was known as ' " Boy Orator of the Planes." ' Ohio Senator Mark Hanna had been McKinley's chief promoter and sold him like ' "patent medicine," 'calling him an ' "Advance Agent of Prosperity" ' and braking all campaign contribution records. The 7 million dollars was raised by requiring big business to fork over 4% of corporate assets. McKinley won by a landslide. Hanna would warn TR not to run for reelection. Pictured a 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon, suggesting that Hanna would be the real president. Click to enlarge.
Roosevelt wrote a friend that "...his ' "chief fight" ' as President was against the new plutocracy who are ' "as unattractive now as in the days of Carthage." "Like both Adams and Andrew Jackson, he was taking a large risk by challenging the citadels of wealth and power,"
Roosevelt faced a pro business court system as demonstrated in 1877 with Munn vs. Illinois which had been a labor victory that would be overturned by the Supreme Court. Consumers were also hurt by court decisions as property rights over human rights had ruled and would continue to rule U.S. Federal Courts. See Pacific Railway Co. vs. Illinois
18 BLACK STORM "... in the fall of
1902, he tried to stop the
coal strike that threatened, more than any event since
the Civil War, to divide the country." For months over 100,000 Pennsylvanian
miners had been striking. There was sabotage, riots and murder. The leader
of the United Mines Workers suggested a Presidential commission but
railroad man George Bear refused to bargain with ' " instigators of violence
and crime." '
Fearing ' "... the most terrible riots the country had ever seen..." ' Roosevelt got seventy-two year old ex--Commanding General of the U.S. Army John Schofield, to agree to, if necessary, to seize the mines using ten thousand troops. Roosevelt was please that the General, in his outdated skullcap and whiskers, did not look like a ' " military dictator" '. Using the threat of troops to nationalize the coal industry, TR got J.P. Morgan, still fighting off the National Securities suit, to use his influence to have a commission resolve the differences.
19) A ROUGH-AND TUMBLE-MAN Liking T.R.'s dexterity, the Republicans did well in the 1902 midterm elections. Roosevelt had the morals of a ' "green-grocer" ' and he felt easy divorces "...were dragging the country into the ' "barnyard." '
Roosevelt knew he might be braking the
Constitution by seizing property without due process of law but he felt
that ' :"The Constitution was made for the people, and not the people
for the Constitution." '
|20) I UPSET THEM ALL In March of 1904 the Supreme Court ruled 5 to 4 that finance company Northern Securities must be dissolved. Of Judge Oliver Wendell Holmes who voted in the negative, Roosevelt said, he could carve ' "a judge with more backbone than that" from a "banana." ' Roosevelt felt he had amended capitalism to save it . "Better to take it from him than ' "some Bryan" ' who would ' " ride over them roughshod." ' Secretary of State John Hay gave a ring belonging to Lincoln to the new President as an inauguration gift. It was said to contain one of Lincoln's hairs and TR said it would remind him ' " to put human rights above property rights." ' Source||To dampen Roosevelt's radicalism the delegates chose McKinley Conservative Senator Charles Fairbanks of Indiana as the 1904 V.P. running mate. Roosevelt wasn't happy. Fear of Roosevelt diminished and rich Republicans like Morgan and Harriman gave $150,000 and $250,000 respectively to his campaign. ..."T.R. lauded the "man in the arena," who if he failed, at least did so "by daring greatly." ' One of FDR's sons told the author of this book that ' "My father spent his whole adult life competing with T.R.." ' Click to enlarge.|
1 From the 2007 first edition
2. Table, column and row titles, and name abbreviations are by Walter Antoniotti
3. Editor's addition
|For more on Washington see Don't Know Much About History Chapter 3 on Growth of a Nation from the Creation of the Constitution to Manifest Destiny and Meacham's Thomas Jefferson. PART VII reviewing Jefferson as opposition to the Federalists of Hamilton and Adams.|