Brave Leaders and How They Changed America
by Michael Beschloss provided by textbooksfree.org Read horizontally.
|Editor's notes: 1) Presidents elected on even decades like 1990, 2000, off year elections of 1992, 2014...2) Pictures are from Wikipedia and the Internet can often be enlarged with a click.3) Editorial comments are in red font. Return to Part 1 Go to Part 2 for TR, FDR, HST, JFK, and RR|
25) NO PEOPLE EXCEPT THE HEBREWS
President Harry S, Truman was surprised when Secretary of State General George Marshall, the architect of the WWII victory in Europe and who never went to parties, showed up at his 1948 small sixty-forth birthday party. Truman thought of Marshall as the ' " great one of the age." ' Marshal praised Truman for his integrity and courage in making decisions that only had the country's best interest at heart. Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman and Winston Churchill in Potsdam, July 1945 Click to enlarge.
The PoliticsDisgruntled by postwar adjustments and Truman's stumbles after FDR's death, 1946 voters had given Congress to the Republicans. Truman's approval rating had dropped to the mid-thirties by the spring of 1948 and pollsters said he would lose reelection.
With a new Jewish state was about to be born, Truman's met with Whitehouse council Clark Clifford and Secretary of State George Marshall. Clifford argued that we should immediately recognize Israel to help protect her from five vastly larger Arab armies ready to pounce. He reasoned that Israel would be a reliable democratic state in the ' "unstable Middle East" '. Also, America was trying to stop Russia from conquering the world. America had also always felt a ' " a great obligation" ' to stop persecution. Marshal argued that Israel didn't stand a chance and we could not come to her aid. "No longer lauding his ' "integrity," ' Marshall unbranded the President (in what Clifford found ' "a righteous Goddamned Baptist tone" ' for playing politics with the Middle East to attract Jewish voters." Marshal then said he wouldn't vote for Truman if he followed Clifford's advise and a shaken condemned Truman adjourned the meeting. This and other heated debates from both sides put pressures on Truman.
26)THE RIGHT PLACE AT
THE RIGHT TIME
Britain controlled 1947 Palestine and they stopped the Jewish immigrant ship SS Exodus from arriving in Palestine where Jews from all over Europe were hoping to form a new Jewish state. World wide outrage resulted.
Britain would soon be leaving Palestine and a UN committee had proposed the area be partition into Jewish and Arab states with an economic union. Assistant Secretary of State Loy Henderson felt American involvement would jeopardize oil supplies and the entire Arab world would become America's enemy. President Truman's Jewess business associations and good heart were to face off with his Midwestern anti-Semitics.
FDR's former Treasury Secretary and unobservant Jew Henry Morgenthau called Truman to complain about the Exodus situation.
Truman complained about Zionists in his diary. "
[Morgenthau had] no business calling me. The Jews have no sense of
proportion, nor do they have any judgment on world affairs... The
Jews, I find are very, very, selfish." They care not how many
Estonians, Latvians, Finns., Poles, Yugoslavs or Greeks get murdered
or mistreated... as long as the Jews get special treatment. Yet when they
have power--physical, financial, or political--neither Hitler nor
Stalin has anything on them for cruelty or mistreatment to the
sides was immense.
27 HOW COULD THIS HAVE HAPPENED?
Soon Truman's good friend Eddie Jacobson from the Army and Kansas City implored him to back the new Jewish and Arab states in Palestine. Truman warned that financial and military support would not be possible.
After the partition into two states, Truman's arms embargo to the Middle East hurt Israel as Britain was arming the Arabs. But Jewish friends of Hoover got lax FBI enforcement of the embargo.
|The State Department had been working for years with the Arab states
to have the Palestine partition fail. Some felt U.S. troops
in Europe to face off the Communists might be needed in the Middle East.
Truman wavering on support of any kind for the partition, and Chaim
Weizmann a Zionist patriarch rushed to New York hoping to see the
President. Truman's friend Eddie Jacobson was asked to help and he sent
Truman a wire saying ' "I have asked very little from you in the way
of favors during all our years of friendship, but I am begging you to see
Dr. Weizmann as soon as possible." Tired of Zionist ' "
...badgering" ' the President wired Eddie that the Palestine problem was
probably ' "not solvable." ' Jacobson flew to New York and got the
proposed meeting arranged by using a private presidential meeting. At
the secret meeting with Weizmann, Truman agreed to support the partition. Before the President could act his U.N. Ambassador
Marshall upset the apple cart by telling the Security Council that a peaceful
partition was not possible and the U.N. should rule Palestine. Truman
would not accept that his Secretary of State George Marshal knew what was
happening. Clifford disagreed and thought the President so naive that he
questioned a second term for his boss.
Leading up to the UN vote, Truman ordered the UN envoys from the U.S. not to use improper pressure and anger the Arabs. The first vote failed by one vote, Clark Clifford got Truman to let his aids lobby for partition and the final vote easily passed. "Complaining of pressure from Washington, Arab delegates walked out." Truman warned a pro-Zionist New York Congressman after the initiative passed that "the pressure boys almost beat themselves... I don't do business that way."
28) I AM Cyrus
Truman had decided that the State Department had '... put the Jews in the same category as Chinamen and Negroes" and was ready to listen. By May of 1948 Clifford had reported to President Truman that the Jews in Palestine were showing ' " unexpected military strength" 'as the fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
informed Eddie Jacobson who informed the President that a Jewish State would
be proclaimed when the British left Palestine and that immediate recognition
by the United States was vital. Truman in a secret message, informed
Weizmann that he would make it so. Not knowing of Truman's actions the State
Department threaten the Zionists to relent their efforts.
The President and Marshall had it out over immediate recognition. Truman won and Marshal sent someone to stop the United States U.N. delegation from reigning in mass. The Jewish State was declare, Truman recognize it, and Chaim Weizmann became its first President of Israel. President Truman with Dr. Chaim Weizmann source Click to enlarge. See Presidential Elections 1932-1972