PresidentialPolitical Eras 4 and 5
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Progressive Populism Ends the Gilded Age
But Business Power Returned
After WW I.
Panic of 1893
meant a 1996
with victory for a republican forged conservative coalition
consisting of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and
prosperous farmers. Liberal opposition meant two unsettled decades called the Progressive
Era which began when
Teddy- Roosevelt in the 1902 Coal Strike.
It was a period of social activism and political reform which
flourished from the 1890s to the early 1920s. Exposing
political machines to eliminate government corruption was an
important progressive goal. They hoped to create a more
democratic federalist republic by putting election reform high on their agenda. Progressives also
sought regulation of monopolistic
trust corporations through
antitrust laws which were seen as a means to promote consumer benefit
through fair competition. Post WW I Communists and unions created fears of anarchy
so conservative government returned. A
Then the War on Drugs.
Then War on Terrorism. Then climate fear. Are
media warmongers making us paranoid?
"And Now the Rest of the Story"\
|8) Democrat Woodrow Wilson would continue
the progressive agenda
with the Revenue Act
It lowered consumer prices by substituted income taxes for tariffs. Declared
unconstitutional by a conservative Supreme Court, the
16th Amendment made the tax legal. The
Federal Trade Commission Act of
was a major effort to control
business trusts. The
Clayton Antitrust Act of outlawed specific conduct putting
Sherman Antitrust Act. The
Federal Farm Loan Act increased credit to rural family farmers and the
temporally lowered child labor abuses.
7) Segregated government continued. Wilson like fellow progressive Teddy Roosevelt and even Thomas Jefferson rationalized that America's people were not ready for integration.
8) Revenue Acts of 1921, 1924, 1926, and 1928 reduced taxes so only richest 2% paid income taxes. Think Bush 2 tax cuts lowers taxes for almost everyone.
9) The Fordney McCumber Tariff Act was one of many protectionist measures during the 1920's. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 designed to protect US industries failed to help as Canada, France and others retaliated. A Mexican Repatriation program help unemployed Mexican citizens return home. It represented forced migration. Think current immigration problems.
10) Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 resulted in the Flood Control Act of 1928. It created the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to watch over public infrastructure.
Party Control Flip- Flops But
Some Progress Made
Democrats promoted American Liberalism anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, and African Americans), white Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups. Experts debate whether this era ended and a Sixth Party System emerged in the mid-1960s with the end of the New Deal coalition.
The era may have continued into the 1980s when the Moral Majority and the Reagan coalition were formed and then in the new century with the Republican Revolution. Interrupted by Presidents Clinton and Obama, it may have continued in 1/15 when the Republicans took control of Congress but Citizens United_v._FEC ended it.
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
3) President Eisenhower pulled out of South Korean and
4) Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the worst Cold War nuclear crises was properly managed.
5) Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
6) Voting Rights Act of 1965 assured minority registration and voting ending a 100 year government stalemate.
7) Vietnam War and Watergate scandal
Camp David Accords of 1978 was the
Tax Act of 1980 began a trend of cutting
Too Big to Fail policy rescued Continental
the First Gulf War in1990 repelled invasion
13) Terrorism strikes on 9/11causes fear that subsides and then returns before the 2016 presidential election.
14) Great Recession ended but slow nominal growth means real national debt will drop slowly as compared to after WW2.
6) Elections 2000 - 2016
Political Polarity Increases
The 1987 Fairness Doctrine exclusion for the communication industry meant presenting contrasting views was not required of radio stations. Most conservative or liberal and party polarization increased
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 allowed multi station company ownership and national networks developed.
Citizens United v. FEC allowed unregulated
Together they ended the
New York Times Ochs Era which
The News That's Fit To Print" era
which ended the
1) 2001 Bush Name War on Terrorism Begins
2) Affordable Care Act of 2010 servived the Supreme Court and may begin to solve a long existing problem.
3) 2011 Don't Ask, Don't Tell battle conducted on talk radio was overruled in 2011.