PresidentialPolitical Eras 4 and 5
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4) Elections1896-1928 Progressive Populism Ends the Gilded Age But Business Power Returned After WW I. Panic of 1893 dissatisfaction meant a 1996 realigning election with victory for a republican forged conservative coalition consisting of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and prosperous farmers. Liberal opposition meant two unsettled decades called the Progressive Era which began when Teddy- Roosevelt in the 1902 Coal Strike. It was a period of social activism and political reform which flourished from the 1890s to the early 1920s. Exposing political machines to eliminate government corruption was an important progressive goal. They hoped to create a more democratic federalist republic by putting election reform high on their agenda. Progressives also sought regulation of monopolistic trust corporations through antitrust laws which were seen as a means to promote consumer benefit through fair competition. Post WW I Communists and unions created fears of anarchy so conservative government returned. A second Red Scare followed WW2. Then the War on Drugs. Then War on Terrorism. Then climate fear. Are politicians and media warmongers making us paranoid?
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
|8) Democrat Woodrow Wilson would continue
the progressive agenda
with the Revenue Act
It lowered consumer prices by substituted income taxes for tariffs. Declared
unconstitutional by a conservative Supreme Court, the
16th Amendment made the tax legal. The
Federal Trade Commission Act of
was a major effort to control
business trusts. The
Clayton Antitrust Act of outlawed specific conduct putting
Sherman Antitrust Act. The
Federal Farm Loan Act increased credit to rural family farmers and the
temporally lowered child labor abuses.
7) Segregated government continued. Wilson like fellow progressive Teddy Roosevelt and even Thomas Jefferson rationalized that America's people were not ready for integration.
8) Revenue Acts of 1921, 1924, 1926, and 1928 reduced taxes so only richest 2% paid income taxes. Think Bush 2 tax cuts lowers taxes for almost everyone.
9) The Fordney McCumber Tariff Act was one of many protectionist measures during the 1920's. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 designed to protect US industries failed to help as Canada, France and others retaliated. A Mexican Repatriation program help unemployed Mexican citizens return home. It represented forced migration. Think current immigration problems.
10) Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 resulted in the Flood Control Act of 1928. It created the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to watch over public infrastructure.
Democrats promoted American Liberalism anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, and African Americans), white Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups. Experts debate whether this era ended and a Sixth Party System emerged in the mid-1960s with the end of the New Deal coalition.
|The era may have continued into the 1980s when the Moral Majority and the Reagan coalition were formed and then in the new century with the Republican Revolution. Interrupted by Presidents Clinton and Obama, it may have continued in 1/15 when the Republicans took control of Congress.|
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
Marshall Plan & NATO
prevented repeat of post WW I type international problems and
officially ended Monroe Doctrine isolationism
3) President Eisenhower pulled out of South Korean and
Missile Crisis of 1962, the worst Cold War nuclear crises was properly
5) Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
6) Voting Rights Act of 1965 assured minority registration and voting ending a 100 year government stalemate.
Vietnam War and
Camp David Accords of 1978 was the
Tax Act of 1980 began a trend of cutting
Too Big to Fail policy rescued Continental
and signaled the beginning of financial industry problems.
the First Gulf War in1990 repelled invasion
Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act a1999 repealed the
Glass–Steagall Act. Did this cause
13) Terrorism strikes on 9/11causes fear that subsides and then returns before the 2016 presidential election.
ended but slow nominal growth means real national debt
will drop slowly as compared to after WW2.
15) Don't Ask, Don't Tell overruled in 2011.
16) Affordable Care Act of 2010 may begin to solve a long existing problem.