Reasons for Colonialism
by 1870s countries developing second industrial revolution facing
1 need to sell overproduction, new markets
2 need to buy larger amounts of raw materials at
Besides: wish to invest surplus of capital in places
with cheaper hand labour in order to get larger profits
RESULT: most developed countries occupied
territories esp. in Africa and Asia – areas with weak political and economic
structures. This is known as colonialism.
Main countries: Britain, France, Germany,
Belgium, Italy later also the United States and Japan
Population excess of industrialised countries:
search better living conditions creating colonies
in areas having similar climate, i.e. South Africa, Australia, Algeria.
RESULT: millions of Europeans emigrated to
colonies preventing further social discomfort to
the metropolis i.e. strikes, stoppage or workers rioting
POLITICAL the “national pride” forcing to
increase the number of colonies
need to occupy ports, build strategic canals
to guard commercial routes in competition with nations aiming the same
JUSTIFICATION FOR COLONIALISM
Some countries mentioned moral or ethical reasoning:
Europe’s civilising mission: due to technological supremacy +
religious = sanitary, educational, improving lifestyles, social peace,…
Rudyard Kipling (December 30,
was an English
author and poet, born in Bombay, British India, and best known for his works The Jungle Book
(1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895
in life Kipling also came to be seen (in George Orwell's
words) as a "prophet of British imperialism."
Many saw prejudice and militarism in his works
responsibility of the white man)
White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling.
RESULT: ideas lead to racism: white man superior to
JUST only a few intellectuals and socialist leaders
opposed colonialism charging brutal and inhuman exploitation in colonies.
"The East India Company
foreshadowed the modern world in all sorts of striking ways. It was one of
the first companies to offer limited liability to its shareholders. It laid
the foundations of the British empire. It spawned
Company Man. And—particularly relevant at the moment—it
was the first state-backed company to make its mark on the world.
State-controlled companies account for 80%
of the market capitalization of the Chinese stock market, more than 60% of
Russia's, and 35% of Brazil's."
In the early 19th century,
the East India Company (EPIC) , had cut off the hands
of hundreds of weavers in Bengal in order to destroy the indigenous weaving
industry in favor of British textile imports (some anecdotal accounts say the
thumbs of the weavers of Dacca
The violent deaths inflicted
by the British are overshadowed by the excess deaths due to deprivation - the
British managed to hold onto India
by keeping most of the population (except for public servants, Princes and
sepoys or Indian soldiers) in dire poverty on the verge of starvation.
By French During Algerian War of Independence