A Very Brief U.S. Political History of Eras and Events Please
Elections 1788-1824 England's Political Influence Finally
Ends and the South Has Some Success
in Controlling Northern Business Interests.
Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and the men of wealth who should run government. Republicans under Jefferson Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda. They stressed being more of a Republic where the individual is sovereign as opposed to democracy where the sovereign is the group, the majority.
Executive privilege used by GW to keep
Jay Treaty documents
from Congress. Other Presidents would claim the right, courts would
sometimes have to decide legality. Think NSA data
Elections 1828-1852 Federalism vs. State's Rights and Democracy vs. Republican the Fight Begins When the Democratic-Republican Party of the Jefferson became factionalized in the 1820's Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party. It hoped to pass political power from established elites to ordinary voters. It supported the primacy of the Presidency over the other branches of the U.S. Federal government. They continued the Bank War by opposing renew the charter of Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United State. Democrats also opposed Whig sponsored modernizing programs that they felt would build up industry at the expense of the taxpayer. These battles continue today! Democrats fought the rival Adams and Anti-Jacksonian factions which soon emerged as the Whigs. They were led by Henry Clay who advocated the primacy of Congress over the Executive Branch as well as policies economic protectionism of Northeastern industry.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Indians
Elections 1856-1896 Civil War Ends, Northeast Takes Control, The Gilded Age is Built on the Backs of the Poor, Especially Women, Immigrants, and Blacks The civil War was followed by massive industrialization centered on rail roads, canals and steamships. Massive wealth was created. Farm mechanism lowered the cost of food and this coupled with science made for a somewhat more prosperous middle class. Immigrants suffered.
Panic of 1857 was caused by over-consumption of goods from
Europe which lowered the money supply. Also overbuilding by competing railroads and rampant Western land
speculation caused speculative problems. Think 2008-9 Great
Why we fought the Civil War. 3)
Enforcement Acts of 1870-71 designed to protect blacks from the
Ku Klux Klan
and to protect Indians failed.
4) Panic of 1873 was caused by the Coinage Act of 1873. It lowered the money supply. Workers blamed cheap foreign labor. Called the Long Depression until the 1930's when the Great Depression, it caused much hardship. It would not be the last time immigrants were blamed for problems. Think Mexico, United States barrier.
5) Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 added merit and began the replacement of the spoils system in the federal hiring equation.
6) Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 lasted until 1942. Scott Act of 1888 expanded the restrictions on Chinese immigration. Think current Mexican Immigration issues.
7) Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began an attempt to regulate business trusts to harness their use of monopoly power.
8) McKinley Tariff of 1890 set record for high rates. Profits increased as did the price of consumers goods.
9) Panic of 1893 resulted in a severe depression. Reluctantly J.P. Morgan bailed out the gold standard with $60,000,000. The 1894 Wilson–Gorman Tariff lowered tariffs slightly & created a 2% income tax on over $4,000 ($88,100 in 2010 dollars). It was repealed as unconstitutional by the 1895 Supreme Court.
Progressives and Populists
Finally End to the
Gilded Age But
Business Power Would Return
After WW I.
realigning election resulted in a republican forged conservative coalition
consisting of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and
prosperous farmers. There would be
opposition which created two unsettled decades called the
victory resulted from our desires for a colonial empire and business interests.
Business also had pushed for the 1897
Dingley Tariff Act which promoted industry
at the expense of consumers as the tariff was added to the price paid by consumers. The
Gold Standard protected savers
but its inflexible money supply caused hard
2) The Panama Canal acquisition of 1903 eventually resulted in improved transportation.
3) Progressive Republican FDR successfully fought party Trusts. First with the 1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food & Drug Act. The Hepburn Act increased Interstate Commerce Commission regulation of Rail Road Trusts which still managed to control rates and competitors.
4) American Antiquities Act of 1906 created National Monuments and was one of many conservation activities.
5) Panic of 1907 needed help from both J.P. Morgan and the Treasury as more liquidity was needed than his wealth could provide. The 1913 the Federal Reserve System resulted and it became the Lender of Last Resort. Designed by Wall Street bankers the FED would continue under Wall Street's thumb until ... 2015 and counting! Think Great Recession.
6) Democrat Woodrow Wilson would continue progressive the agenda. The Revenue Act of 1913 substituted income taxes for lower tariffs and this lowered the price of consumer goods. The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 was a major effort to control business trusts. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 outlawed specific conduct putting teeth into Sherman Antitrust Act. The Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 increased credit to rural family farmers and the Keating–Owen Act of 1916 temporally lowered child labor abuses..
7) Segregated government continued as Wilson was like progressives T Roosevelt and T Jefferson in that he felt Americans were not ready for integration.
8) Revenue Act of 1921 and Revenue Acts of 1924,1926,1928 reduced taxes so only richest 2% paid income taxes. Think 2 Bush tax cuts. The Fordney McCumber Tariff Act was one of many protectionist measures during the decade. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 to protect US industries failed to help as Canada, France and others retaliated. A Mexican Repatriation program help unemployed Mexican citizens return home. It represented forced migration. Think current immigration problems.
9) Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 resulted in the Flood Control Act of 1928. It created the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to watch over public infrastructure..
10) The 16th, 17th, and 19th amendments made some progressive policies permanent.
Elections 1932-present Party Control Flip Flops Like a Yoyo but Progress Is Made Republicans were penalized by outrage caused during the summer of 1932 by Veteran Bonus Army deaths. It combined with the of Hoover's domestic policies. Change was demanded.
|Democrats promoted American Liberalism. It anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, African Americans). White Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups were also courted.|
American Citizens in 1942 consisted of 150,000
mostly Japanese men, women
The Ugly U.S.
Cost of War
|1 The idea that Muslims Extremism is behind all military confrontations in the Middle East and Africa reminds me of the Cold War. Then regime change Egypt and Syria and Para military confrontations in Central and South American were all said to be inspired by Communist. Looking back neither Egypt or Syria became Communistic and few of these conflicts resulted in communist governments. Oligarch looking to control lesser developed countries need money and the USSR would contribute to one side and the U.S. to the other side. Today conservative Muslims have the money!||2According to Henry Kissinger's biographer Walter Isaacson, President Johnson's reason for U.S. involvement in Vietnam was called the Domino Theory. The idea that Nation A falling to Communism would make it easier for Nation B and then C was already being questioned when Nixon took offices. Henry's reason for taking four years and not the promised six months to withdraw from Vietnam was the importance of maintaining U.S. foreign policy creditability. No attempt was made to compare the importance of credibility in relation to South-East Asia with that related to Central Europe, the Middle East, Korea/Japan, Central America and at home. Statements that something will hurt the U.S. should be how, how much, in relation to what ... About half of the U.S. causalities occurred during the Nixon-Kissinger watch even though both men entered office thinking the Vietnam War was not winnable.|