A Very Brief Political History of the
11 nations with distinct identities and values
1. The First Nations American
natives worked well with French in Northern areas until broken promises and English beliefs about their
own superiority soured them.
2. El Norte – These outposts of Spain's Colonial Empire consisted of independent minded Spanish frontiersman ranchers coming up from Mexico.
3. New France – Expanding the French colonies, these furs trading explorers wanted to take care of the lands they settled in Canada and upper New England. They were explorers, not terribly ideological, who wanted to trade. They integrated peacefully with Native Americans and wanted to take care of the land.
4. Yankeedom – Founders wanted to create a Puritanical fundamentalist Utopia with mandated education, justice, rights for all humans. They hated the English and most wanted freedom of Relegion as long as it was their own.5. New Netherlands – Dutch founders wanted to trade furs and engage in shipping from a cosmopolitan meeting place. Did not care about English politics or slavery.
6. The Midlands – Quaker William Penn wanted a tolerant isolated Quaker anti-slavery society. They loathed the Yankee religious theocracies.
7. Tidewater – English gentry created estates in Virginia using indentured servitude but they switched to slavery when the indentured servitude system degraded.
8. Deep South – English traders from Barbados where they acquired resources using violence and slavery. In Charleston they grew cotton in a society designed to benefit a wealthy few.
9. Greater Appalachia –Mostly lowland contrarians from Scotland and Ireland came to escaped English domination. They settled in poorer Appalachians lands. These hearty people valued individual liberty.
10. The Left Coast – Ingenious people who moved West to preserve the land's natural beauty. Wanted a utopian planned educated community.
The Far West – Explorers, hunters and. adventures were joined by East Coast anti-government capitalists. They railroads and river transport to create wealth from mining, lumber and oil.
Elections 1788-1824 England's Political Influence Finally
Ends and the South Has Some Success
in Controlling Northern Business Interests.
Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and the men of wealth who should run government. Republicans under Jefferson Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda. They stressed being more of a Republic where the individual is sovereign as opposed to democracy where the sovereign is the group, the majority.
Executive privilege was used by G.W. to keep
Jay Treaty documents
Panic of 1857 was caused by over-consumption of goods from
Europe which lowered the money supply.
State's Rights and Democracy vs. Republican the Fight Begins
Democratic-Republican Party of the Jefferson became factionalized in the
1820's Jackson's supporters began to form the modern
Democratic Party. It hoped to pass political power from established elites to
ordinary voters. It supported the primacy of the Presidency over the
other branches of the U.S. Federal government. They continued the
by opposing renew the charter of Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United
State. Democrats also opposed Whig sponsored
modernizing programs that they felt would build up
at the expense of the
These battles continue today! Democrats fought the rival
Anti-Jacksonian factions which soon emerged as the
Whigs. They were led by
Clay who advocated the primacy of
Congress over the
Executive Branch as well as policies economic protectionism of
Elections 1856-1896 Civil War Ends, Northeast Takes Control, The Gilded Age is Built on the Backs of the Poor, Especially Women, Immigrants, and Blacks The civil War was followed by massive industrialization centered on rail roads, canals and steamships. Massive wealth was created. Farm mechanism lowered the cost of food and this coupled with science made for a somewhat more prosperous middle class. Immigrants suffered.
Progressives and Populists
Finally End to the
Gilded Age But
Business Power Would Return
After WW I.
realigning election resulted in a republican forged conservative coalition
consisting of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and
prosperous farmers. There would be
opposition which created two unsettled decades called the
victory resulted from our desires for a colonial empire and business interests.
Business also had pushed for the 1897
Dingley Tariff Act which promoted industry
at the expense of consumers as the tariff was added to the price paid by consumers. The
Gold Standard protected savers
but its inflexible money supply caused hard
2) The Panama Canal acquisition of 1903 eventually resulted in improved transportation.
3) Progressive Republican FDR successfully fought party Trusts. First with the 1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food & Drug Act. The Hepburn Act increased Interstate Commerce Commission regulation of Rail Road Trusts which still managed to control rates and competitors.
4) American Antiquities Act of 1906 created National Monuments and was one of many conservation activities.
5) Panic of 1907 needed help from both J.P. Morgan and the Treasury as more liquidity was needed than his wealth could provide. The 1913 the Federal Reserve System resulted and it became the Lender of Last Resort. Designed by Wall Street bankers the FED would continue under Wall Street's thumb until ... 2015 and counting! Think Great Recession.
6) Democrat Woodrow Wilson would continue progressive the agenda. The Revenue Act of 1913 substituted income taxes for lower tariffs and this lowered the price of consumer goods. The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 was a major effort to control business trusts. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 outlawed specific conduct putting teeth into Sherman Antitrust Act. The Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 increased credit to rural family farmers and the Keating–Owen Act of 1916 temporally lowered child labor abuses..
7) Segregated government continued as Wilson was like progressives T Roosevelt and T Jefferson in that he felt Americans were not ready for integration.
8) Revenue Act of 1921 and Revenue Acts of 1924,1926,1928 reduced taxes so only richest 2% paid income taxes. Think 2 Bush tax cuts. The Fordney McCumber Tariff Act was one of many protectionist measures during the decade. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 to protect US industries failed to help as Canada, France and others retaliated. A Mexican Repatriation program help unemployed Mexican citizens return home. It represented forced migration. Think current immigration problems.
9) Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 resulted in the Flood Control Act of 1928. It created the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to watch over public infrastructure..
10) The 16th, 17th, and 19th amendments made some progressive policies permanent.
were penalized by outrage
It combined with the of Hoover's domestic policies. Change was demanded.
Democrats promoted American Liberalism.
It anchored in a coalition of specific liberal
1. Health Problems Solved
1902 Scarlet Fever deaths peaked at close to 5,000 and then slowly dropped thanks to penicillin.
1905 Last Yellow Fever epidemic killed 20 in US as misquote control eliminated cause. 1936 vaccine ended disease.
1916 Measles 12,000 mostly children died. Vaccine finally eliminated most cases by early 1980's.
1918 Spanish Flu 500,000 died in US. This could have been the cause of the post WW 1 recession.
1921 Diphtheria 206,000 cases, 15,520 deaths, mostly children died.
1953 Polio 57,628 cases with 21,000 paralyzed Vaccine followed and Polio is now about gone.
1957-58 Asian Flu 70,000 died in US.
1968-69 Hong Kong Flu 34,000 died in US.
1985-95+ AIDS killed ten to twenty thousand per year in 1970's. Annual deaths peaked at 41,699 in mid 1990's
and then they quickly dropped due to super drug development and availability. Total US deaths were 658,507.
By the 1960's Measles, Mumps, Rubella and a 1995 Chicken Pox vaccines made childhood safer and more enjoyable as did seat belts,
infant safety seats, bicycle safety helmets, and 1962 began the era of government sponsored child protective services.
2. Long-lasting Great Depression Legislation
TVA employed people to build dams, controlled floods, improved irrigation and eventually generated electricity.
Emergency Banking Act establish the first federal bank regulations and set up SEC to police Wall Street.
Social Security Act created Old-Age pensions, unemployment insurance and disability Insurance.
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set maximum hours and minimum wages. It also prohibited Discriminatory Employment related to federal employment.
3. Post WW II Activity Included Reorganization of Israel resulted in a strong pro-American Middle East democracy.
Marshall Plan prevented a repeat of the post WW I problems that led to WW II. Germany, Japan and England eventually prospered.
NATO officially ended Monroe Doctrine isolationism.
Federal Aid Highway Act created interstate highway system for national defense purposes and allowed the development of suburbia.
4. A return to Progressivism Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 provided benefits for poor people, education, unemployed and the elderly.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally began the process of moving toward minority equality. It continued with the Voting Rights Act of 1965
designed to assured minority registration and voting and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which banned housing discrimination.
Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
Environmental Protection Agency was created by presidential executive order. It along with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990
increased federal regulatory authority. 26th Amendment of 1971 lowered voting age to18 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990...
5. Taxes dropped benefits increased Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 cut most taxes. Tax Reform Act of 1986 lowered taxes on wealthy.
Tax Cuts of 2001 lowered rates for many. 2003 tax cut was the first in a time of high war. 2003 Medicare Part D increase drug benefits.
2010 PPACA resulted in more people having health insurance.
American Citizens in 1942 consisted of
150,000 mostly Japanese men, women and children.
The Ugly U.S.
Cost of War
1. Nineteen-month World War 1 killed 116,516 from all causes with 204,002 wounded in action.
The resulting peace treaty severely penalized Germany and divided the Ottoman Empire among the winners.
These winners continued their 19th Century Western Colonialism, which planted the seeds for Arab Unrest.
2. Four year World War 2 killed 405,399 from all causes with 670,660 wounded in action.
Losers were not punished. Russian Bear having suffered 26.6 military and civilian deaths
used their newly occupied eastern European territory to provide a protective buffer.
3. Three year Korean War killed 36,574 with 103,284 wounded in action. South Korea remained free.
She used a small defense budget to build industrial capital and rejoined the developed world.
4. The very long Vietnam War2 killed 58,220 with over 153,303 wounded with few important positive results.
5. As of 12/31/14 Afghanistan War killed 2,312 with 20,026 wounded with few important positive results.
Iraq War, as of 5/29/12, killed 4,425 with 32,223 wounded with few important positive results.
|1 The idea that Muslims Extremism is behind all military confrontations in the Middle East and Africa reminds me of the Cold War. Then regime change in Egypt and Syria and Para military confrontations in Central and South American were all said to be inspired by Communist. Looking back neither Egypt or Syria became Communistic and few of these conflicts resulted in communist governments. Oligarch looking to control lesser developed countries needed money and the USSR would contribute to one side and the U.S. to the other side. Today conservative Muslims have the money!||2According to Henry Kissinger's biographer Walter Isaacson, President Johnson's reason for U.S. involvement in Vietnam was called the Domino Theory. The idea that Nation A falling to Communism would make it easier for Nation B to fall and then C would fall quickly. This idea was already being questioned when Nixon took offices. Henry's reason for taking six years and not the promised six months to withdraw from Vietnam was the importance of maintaining U.S. foreign policy creditability. No attempt was made to compare the importance of credibility in relation to South-East Asia with that related to Central Europe, the Middle East, Korea/Japan, Central America and at home. Statements that something will hurt the U.S. should always be followed by be how, how much, in relation to what, at what cost ... About half of the U.S. Vietnam causalities occurred during the Nixon-Kissinger watch even though both men entered office thinking the Vietnam War was not winnable.|