Presidential Elections 3
War Ends, Northeast Takes Control,
The Gilded Age is Built on the Backs of the
Poor, Especially Women, Immigrants, and Blacks
Eras Part 1 View 20th Century
Decades Ranked by Problems
What Caused the New Era
The 1850s saw the collapse of the Whig party mainly because death
depleted its leadership and a major intra-party split over slavery
due to the
Compromise of 1850 resulting in the
Kansas-Nebraska Act. Whigs were soon replaced by the Democratic
Party's as primary opposition by the new
Republican Party which had rose to prominence in 1860 with the
Abraham Lincoln. Newly enfranchised African Americans (Freedmen)
entered the Republican party. The Republican coalition also
consisted of businessmen, shop
owners, skilled craftsmen, clerks and professionals who were
attracted to the party's modernization policies. Southerners (Redeemers)
joined the Democratic Party which was a coalition of conservative
Bourbon Democrats, traditional Democrats in the North (many of
Copperheads), and Catholic immigrants among others.
The North and therefore the Republicans won the war.
Long-term Major Political
James Buchanan, an experienced politician replaced Pierce as the
Democratic nominee as and the Whigs disintegrated into the
Republican (strongly against slavery's expansion) and
American/Know-Nothing Party (which ignored slavery and instead
anti-Catholic policies) competed to replace it as the principal
opposition to the Democratic Party.
Panic of 1857 was caused by over-consumption of goods from
Europe drained. Union's
specie, overbuilding by competing railroads, and rampant
Western land speculation.
Covode Committee failed to impeach
based on bribery charges.
Presidential election, 1860 centered on expansion of
slavery and the rights of slave owners. These issues broke the
Democratic Party into Northern and Southern and a new
Constitutional Union Party appeared. The largest vote in
existing history of 81% resulted in Abe getting 40% of the
of the Civil War
Why we fought the Civil War.
If we never fought a Civil War
Proclamation Changed Course of Civil War
Election of 1864 was looking bad for Abe but a turn in the war
and the support of the troops resulted in Abe easily defeating
George_B._McClellan. Popular vote was 55% to 45%.
1868 Abe's VP and a Southerner
a southerner replaced Lincoln and the new president favored quick
restoration of the
seceded states and to the Union. His plans did not give
protection to the
former slaves, and he came into conflict with the
Republican-dominated Congress culminating in
his impeachment by the House of Representatives.
Election, of 1868 was the first election in which
African Americans could vote in every (Northern or
Reconstructed) state (in accordance with the
First Reconstruction Act). Grant won the office. Every state
Florida used a popular vote to determine Electoral College
members.. The constitution had given states the right to determined
Enforcement Acts of 1870-71 to protect blacks from the
Ku Klux Klan
and attempts to protect Indians failed.
Coinage Act of 1873 which decreased the money supply exacerbated
of 1873 Workers feared
cheap foreign labor.
Long Depression, until the 1930's when the Great Depression
caused much hardship.
Election of 1876 was one of the most contentious
presidential election in American history. Although there is no question that
Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio's
Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote but 20 electoral
college votes were contested in four state. In the case of
Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, each party reported
its candidate had won the state. In Oregon one elector
was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official")
and replaced. An informal deal was struck to resolve the
dispute as the
Compromise of 1877 awarded all 20 electoral votes to
Republican Hayes in return for their agreement to end ten years of
Reconstruction with the withdrawal of federal troops from
Reconstruction ended as he returned South to home-rule.
Specie Resumption Act of 1875, a hard money policy removed
unsupported inflationary Greenbacks from circulation.
Allison Act of1878, unsuccessfully vetoed by Hayes, increase
Presidential election of 1880 was close, 7000 votes but
electoral college vote was 214 to 155. Garfield became the
only man ever to be elected to the Presidency directly from the
House of Representatives and was for a short period a sitting
Representative, Senator-elect, and President-elect.
Senatorial courtesy in executive appointments ignored which
added to Presidential power
|He had no Vice-President while
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 added merit to
in the hiring equation.
Exclusion Act lasted until 1942.
Election of 1884 was about personal character as some letters showing
that Republican Blaine had sold his Congressional influence in
Congress to various businesses. One such letter ended with the
phrase "burn this letter." Democrat Cleveland admitted that he had formed an "illicit connection"
with the mother and that a child had been born and given the
Vetoed attempts by Republican Congress to use pension
benefits as patronage.
Failed in his tight money attempts and thus postponement of
the resolution of the
movement as a cure for low agriculture income and recession.
Failure to reduce protective tariffs in spite of government
surplus helped industry.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began
Scott Act continued restrictions on Chinese immigration.
Election of 1888 saw Cleveland win the popular vote as Republicans
were heavily in favor of
protective tariffs, turning out protectionist voters in the
important industrial states of the North. Harrisons also campaigned
in favor of the spoils system.
Tariff of 1890 set rates to their highest rate to date.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 increased the money supply.
Election of 1892 Cleveland wanted to lower McKinley's high
Tariff tariffs (the Republicans were pro-business
protectionist) to lower the price of consumer goods. He opposed
the Republican sponsored
1890 voting rights proposal designed to help predominately
republican southern blacks vote.
Wilson–Gorman Tariff of 1894 lowered rates slightly & created a
2% income tax.
It was an interesting response to
Panic of 1893
and resulting severe depression.
Reluctantly agreed to a
J.P. Morgan backed $60,000,000 bailout of the Gold Standard.