2. Silences vs.
Reporting on the world from the
Irving Berlin had learned institutions
important than individual relationships.
Trying to report from
Russia he ran into
individuals who were fearful and silent and
separated from the Western world.
Lenin, changed the USSR ecology made
it differed from that
of the U.S.
One demanded silence,
the other thrived on
3. The Need for Truth 19:11
Russians had suffered during the czars
suffering was different. It was
Marxian as interpreted by revolutionaries
who felt truth did not exist
time flowed slowly,
someone had to organize and lead people
into a national planned system.
Marxist/Fascists followed the true
correct theory, judgment was not needed.
They knew answer in advance so
contradictions could be ignored as they
would be removed by the flow of time.
Being correct provided the confidence4.
The Importance of Scale15:00
needed to not
fear the future.
Berlin felt FDR was sure of himself,
self confidence. He could solve
WW2related problems not knowing of
Dialectical and Historical Materialism
by J. V. Stalin 9/38. He had no theory
beyond his own ability if he was in control.
His self confidence did not come from
a search for truth. He learned to
He was a juggler, knew importance of
was not consistent but could see the big picture
and create balance by
importance of scale.
He managed variables need to
The BEAR was needed to stop Germany,
Victory required denial of justice and
Justice required denial of victory.
FDR no guaranties for
Baltic and Poland,
we need Russia, FDR said screw Poland.
It would be the US and USSR deciding
direction, no morals or ethics involved.
Oliver Wendell Holmes- said of FDR,
"a second class intellect but
a first class temperament.
5. Grand strategy requires the
directional compass of
a gyroscope to provide for
a balanced temperament.
Carl von Clausewitz on Grand
Complexity requires intellect
course which requires adjustment
combined with temperament to determines
Napoleon the conqueror
and lost an empire.
Lincoln save a
country by not doing so.
Wilson the builder could nor
FDR the juggler balanced important variables.
suggested we survived as
a species by combing habits of Berlin's foxes
when adjustments to rapid changes are needed
and like hedgehogs to thrive
in stable times.
He believed good judgment required a
that requires rethinking
core assumptions while preserving
Good judgment assumes Moral equivalents
with equal cost from failure.
Berlin saw WW 2 Politics as a polarity
with in equivalent concepts of Liberty at either end.
individuals yield freedom of choice to some higher
with disposition and the possibility of slavery or even
were sure of being correct and wanted few alternatives:
lessened or postpones with a promise of treasure.
No proof beyond theory
compatible of means, ends automatically converge.
All knew how world worked, allowed
Allowed contradictions even cacophonies
provided no compass
They were foxes without a compass
drift leading to possible anarchy
Machiavelli, Octavian Caesar, Elizabeth I
American founders, Lincoln, and FDR
were foxes with a compass
Risk is accepted by low expectations
proven means for achievable ends while
subjecting theory to
Required No compatibility,
no convergence with theory when subjected
to experience and corrections.
Pluralism was required
which Berlin felt
created a dynamic, antagonistic, discontented world...
7. Accepting Past and Present
In 1962 RFK response to a
Mexican War question
was taking Mexico by force
was probably incorrect.
It cause Deep Do Do.
Should we give Texas back. Most
would say no.
The resulting justice would cause chaos and too
injustice would result. Contractions exist.
Learning to live with
history means living
Grand strategies helps because
all fair deals
are based on proportions,
the item received must be in
be in proportion to that paid.
Grand strategy aligns desires
Fairness is helped by bending toward
Carl von Clausewitz
subordinating war to policy for
freedom comes from violence.
The contradiction of life and
is the greatest we will behold,
almost all participants deserve