Return to U.S. Politics 7/21/19
Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and men of wealth who should run government.
|Republicans of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda of a strong central government. Instead they wanted more states rights in our developing Democratic Federalist Republic. See Characteristics of Market System Capitalism and Political Economy.|
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
|Election 1788 and 1792 General George Washington running unopposed was the Electoral College choice. His Farewell Address warned that a union of states would come under frequent attacks by foreign and domestic enemies, the importance of separation of powers and checks and balances, and political factions who obstruct the execution of laws.||
Washington 1788 to early 1793
Bill of Rights added to the Constitution
but didn't apply to state law until 1929.
of 1791against federal taxes failed.
|Election 1796 had first political parties with the Jeffersonian-Republicans accusing the ruling Federalists of favoring an Oligarchy of the wealthy. Most favored Federalists Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton who was not nominated as he had created many enemies and would not beat Jefferson.||
Adams 1793 to early 2001
Alien and Sedition Acts limited citizen rights and sent news people to jail as paranoia swept America because a liberal democratic revolutions was ravaging Europe. War would cause most future Presidents to limit freedoms in the name of national security.
Marbury v. Madison resulted in the process of Judicial Review Was the Court creating law? Did SC go from 3rd to 1st in the power battle?
Election of 1800 resulted in an Electoral College tie and the outgoing House of Reprehensive elected Jefferson over Federalist Adams. The three-fifths compromise and increased slave numbers meant more southern victories and much future consternation. Political philosophy attributed to of Jefferson influenced many for over 200 years.
Embargo Act of 1807 was another example of his ignoring strict constitutional interpretation. It halted trade with Europe because warring countries were not respecting freedom of the seas. It really hurt New England merchants and was perceived as favoring France over Brittan.
Election of 1808 had opposition to Jefferson's export ban
but friend Madison easily won over Charles
Election of 1812 was fought in the shadow of the War of 1812. It was intriguing as Democratic-Republican candidate President Madison was opposed by fellow party member D. Clinton the nephew of Madison's late VP G. Clinton. Candidate Clinton was anti-war in the North and for war in the South. Federalist R. King received no electoral votes.
J. Madison 1809–1816
Father of the Bill of Rights Editor's Note: Jefferson and Madison both wanted a limited federal government, strict interpretation of the constitution, and no debt. But they wanted to buy Louisiana and West Florida so they temporarily stopped being Strict Constructionists.
Bank of United States charter was not renewed in an attempt to limit business influence but paying for the War of 1812 required such an institution and Madison agreed.
|Election, 1816 began the Era of Good Feelings (1816–1824) and ended the First Party System. It was run by Eastern money interests who wanted protective tariffs with resulting revenue to help industry. Rural interests wanted low tariffs with resulting cheaper goods. The Federalist's elitism had diminished their influence and their anti-war stance proved devastating when the war ended well. Plus some of Federalist beliefs were adopted by easy winner Monroe.||
Implied powers were derived from the Necessary and Proper Clause during the 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland U.S. bank case . Congress won power battle.
Monroe Doctrine of 1823 keeps U.S out of European politics until WWI. It was also done to keep Europe out of the Caribbean and far western territories. These were to be US spheres of influence. European monarch, especially after the anarchy of the French Revolution, were very anti-democratic. Editor's Note: The Northeast business interest vs. South/West rural interest battles continues today.
|Election of 1824 had the Democratic-Republican Party splintered with four presidential candidates. A Second Party System was coming. Later the Andrew Jackson faction evolved into the modern Democratic Party while factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party. Then the Whig Party. The corrupt bargain elected J. Q. Adams for one term.||
J. Q. Adams
System" of internal improvements of road-building, a national
bank to help productive Eastern business and a national currency all initiated by Alexander Hamilton were financed by the
of Abominations. It later caused the
Nullification Crisis as states questioned federal authority
over states. Editor's Note:
This was beginning of the two continuing fights, 1) the use
of tariff to finance government 2) states versus
J. Calhoun and H. Clay controlled the National Republican Party with a less restrictive Federalists agenda than A. Hamilton.