Presidential Elections 1   1788-1824
England's Political Influence Finally Ends

Other Elections     1828-1852     1856-1892     1896-1928     1932-1972     1976-2012 

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The Federalist Party favored a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized
banking system and a strong federal government of wealthy businessmen.
The Republican Party of Jefferson strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda. Instead they wanted more states rights in a developing pastoral Democratic Federalist Republic. source Notes History


"And Now the Rest of the Story"

Elections of 1788 and 1792 General George Washington ran unopposed. His Farewell Address warned that a union of states would come under frequent attacks by foreign and domestic enemies; he felt the separation of powers was important, that checks and balances were needed and that political factions would be destructive. George Washington was a sound administrator who took a wealthy bride. Think President Eisenhower. The Bill of Rights added to the Constitution but they didn't apply to state laws until 1925. Think slavery was legal. Executive privilege was used to keep Jay Treaty papers from Congress. Think Pentagon Papers. The 1791 Whiskey Rebellion by Pennsylvania's Western farmers protesting federal taxes failed as Washington sent the military. Think  federal troops enforce integration and Tea Party movement.
Election of 1796 had political parties with Jeffersonian-Republicans accusing ruling Federalists of favoring an Oligarchy run by the wealthy. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, the most propionate Federalists, was not nominated as he had created many enemies and many felt he would not beat Jefferson. John Adams, an intellectual, spent most of his presidency in Massachusetts. Liberal democratic revolutions ravaged Europe. An undeclared Quasi-War with France raged. Resulting fear and paranoia allowed Federalist to limited citizen liberties with the Alien and Sedition Acts. Some anti-Federalist newspaper reporters went to jail. The 1835 Zenger Trial would begin needed Freedom of the Press development as most Presidents would use war to limit freedom in the name of national security. Think Japanese internment, War on Terror... Marbury v. Madison resulted in the Supreme Court assuming the Judicial Review responsibility of determine the constitutionality of some laws. Did SC create law? Did SC go from 3rd to 1st in the power battle?

Election of 1800 resulted in an Electoral College tie and the outgoing House of Reprehensive dumped Adams for Jefferson who was known as The Negro President because the three-fifths compromise got him elected. Slave numbers increased and with them came more southern victories and much future consternation. 1804 of election

T. Jefferson was a polymath who led a stylish life. He was persistent in his unwelcomed advances toward a good friend's wife and he also married well. Jefferson's philosophical inconsistency was typified by the Louisiana Purchase as he ignored his strict constructionist beliefs. The Embargo Act of 1807 was another example. The act halted trade with Europe's warring countries who were not respecting freedom of the seas. The act disproportionately hurt New England merchants and was perceived as favoring France over Britain. "Enlightenment" theories of government attributed to Jefferson because he wrote the Declaration of Independence still guide democratic ideals.
Election of 1808 featured opposition to Jefferson's export ban but friend Madison won over Charles Pinckney. The Election of 1812 was fought in the shadow of war with England. President Madison was opposed by fellow party member D. Clinton the nephew of Madison's late VP G. Clinton. Candidate Clinton was anti-war in the North and for war in the South. Federalist R. King received no electoral votes. J. Madison was a shy intellectual who made a poor first impression, founded the Democratic-Republican Party and is considered the Father of the Bill of Rights. The Bank of United States charter was not renewed in an attempt to limit business influence but paying for the War of 1812 required it and Madison finally agreed. Think government shutdown of 2013. The Infant industry argument and a need for revenue resulted in the Tariff of 1816. Think profits increase as do consumer prices. 
Election of 1816 began the Era of Good Feelings (18161824) and ended the First Party System run by Eastern moneyed interests who wanted protective tariffs revenue and to help industry. Rural Americans wanted low tariffs with the resulting cheaper goods. Federalist elitism diminished their influence and their anti-war stance proved devastating when the war ended well. Plus some Federalist beliefs were adopted by easy winner Monroe. J. Monroe had a warm George H.W. Bush personality. In the 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland case the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had a right to use implied powers to do what was necessary and proper to carry out constitutionally granted Congressional responsibilities. In this case the Second Bank of the United States was ruled legal and a state could not impede (tax) Congress fulfilling their responsibility. This was the beginning of expanded federal power. Editor's Note: The liberal Northeast business interest battle vs. conservative South/West rural interests continues today. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine kept U.S out of European politics until WWI. It also kept Europe out of the Caribbean and far western territories. These were to be U.S. spheres of influence. Think Russia wants a Eastern Europe sphere of influence.
Election of 1824 had a splintered Democratic-Republican Party with four presidential candidates. None had an Electoral College majority. Jackson led but the House elected Adams in what some considered a corrupt bargain. A Second Party System emerged as Jackson's faction became the modern Democratic Party while factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay became the National Republican Party with a less restrictive Federalists agenda. It became the Whig Party. J. Q. Adams was a great American Secretaries of State. The "American System" of road-building, a national bank to help Eastern business and a national currency envisioned by Hamilton were financed by the 1828 "Tariff of Abominations. It later caused a Nullification Crisis as states questioned federal authority over states. Editor's Note: Political discussions over a large expensive central government vs. pastoral federal states has continued during the development of our Democratic Federalist Capitalist Republic. source First Party System