Modern Western Civilization Political Economic History
Updated 11/30/17            Return to Quick Notes History    

 Humans began with speech.    Civilization came with agriculture and writing.     Industry began with energy.

Improved Transport led to Trade
, then Money, Profit, Private Property and finally Nationalism.     Other Summaries




Guttenberg Press1

Carrack Sailing Ships

Advanced Communication


Controlling Oligarchs


+ Politicians + Interest Groups + Billionaires
+ Social Media

Eternity in Hell or Heaven 
Physical punishment

  + Economic Rewards   + Political Rewards   + Self Interest
Economic System Feudalism Mercantilism
based on Bullionism.


with managed currency and credit

Politically Correct Theory Manorialism has Lords with
legal and economic power supported economically from his landholdings and from the legal obligatory contributions of the peasantry.
State power increased by tariffs which helped private  "infant" industries. Trade was limited and with industrial specialization providing growth. Private property with individual liberty protected by a constitutional Democracy.  Property/Contract Right eventually yield to human Rights/Liberties
See Lochner v. NY
Free Markets Rule
GATT expands Globalism
WTO add Agriculture
Nationalistic Backlash

Energy Source

Water and Wind

+ Steam 

+ Electricity

+ Oil

+ Atom      + Nature

Major Sources of Government Income

Surfs + Borrowing + Inflation

 + Tariffs
  + Corporate + Income Taxes
+ Payroll Tax
Conflicted Participants

Church and Monarchs

    +Countries  + Business
+ Cultural Philoophy
Who Pays Most to Government

Surfs + Savers

+ Farmers
+ Bankers + Business
 + Corporations
+ Individuals
 Who Has
 Most Wealth

Monarchs + Church + Bankers

 + Business
+ Corporations
+ Finance
 + Innovators + Workers

Government Waste



+ Excess Military Spending 
+ Misdirected Education Spending

 Successful Government Contribution


   + Infrastructure

+ Sanitation + Health
+ R&D + Universal Education

Appropriate  Education
+ Security

Unintended Consequences of Government



Individual Dissatisfaction

What Wealthy Fear



Social Networks

See 1  Turning Points in Modern History  By: The Great Courses  Narrated by: Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius

A Portuguese carrack,
as depicted in a
map made in 1565.





Other Summaries

History of Economic Thought Video collection

Great Economists Classical Economics and Its Forerunners MRU

History of Economic Thought  97 min video

350 Years of Economic Theory, Mark Thornton Mises Institute 55 min

"Fear the Boom and Bust": Keynes vs. Hayek Rap Battle     #2 27 min

Marx Through Hayek Mises Institute Podcasts

Liberty And Economics 37 min video

Economics for Libertarians 1   37 Min  # 2  27 Min

Cameron Weber presents A Critique on Karl Marx

Chicago School Thinking: Old, New from James Buchanan

#1 Aristotle Examined the Beginnings of Western Civilization

# He Saw Trends

Aristotle Predicted Modern Western Civilization

See Aristotle, Politics    Book 1   Book 2   youtube book 1   youtube book 2.

Thoughts of Western Philosophers






State of Nature

The state of nature is a state of war.  No morality exists.  Everyone lives in constant fear.  Because of this fear, no one is really free, but, since even the “weakest” could kill the “strongest” men ARE equal.

Men exist in the state of nature in perfect freedom to do what they want.  The state of nature is not necessarily good or bad.  It is chaotic.  So, men do give it up to secure the advantages of civilized society.

Men in a state of nature are free and equal. In a state of nature, men are “Noble Savages”.  Civilization is what corrupted him.

Purpose of Government

To impose law and order to prevent the state of war.

To secure natural rights, namely man’s property and liberty.

To bring people into harmony.  To unite them under the “General Will”.

Economic System Pure Capitalism Mixed Economy Socialism


Governments are designed to control, not necessarily represent.

Representation ensures that governments are responsive to the people.  Representation is a safeguard against oppression.

Representation is not enough.  Citizens cannot delegate their civic duties.  They must be actively involved.  Rousseau favors a more direct democracy to enact the general will.

Impact on Founders

Governments must be designed to protect the people from themselves.

1.       Governments must be designed to protect the people from the government. 

2.       Natural Rights must be secured.

1.       Governments must be responsive and aligned with the general will. 

2.       People make a nation, not institutions.

3.       Individual wills are subordinate to the general (collective) will.


Political Philosophy of Aristotle



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The 17 Equations That Changed the Course of History

Stewart 17 equations table