20th Century Education  
from
Education History Timeline  Author's Experiences

Updated 11/24/17            Return to Education Improvement Library             Please    
 

Prologue Changing Paradigms

1900 - 1944 H.S. Vocational Education Get Governmental Attention

1945 - 1980's College and Head Start Gets Governmental Attention

1980- 2000 Homeschooling and Teacher Education Becomes a Business

2000's Continued Dissatisfaction With Results 
Leads to More Governmental Action

2010's Colleges Begin Another Major Adjustment

Epilogue Leaders Advise


H.S. and Vocational Education Get Governmental Attention


1900's
First public community college
 

First junior high school improves high school graduation rates.

1910's
First Montessori school

Cooperative extension services and federal funding added
to grants universities which began on 1860's.  

Agricultural and vocational education provided
federal funding
until 1997 when programs were
unified to provide one-stop shopping.

Transportation funding for school children
provided by all states. Editor's Note: As late as 
the mid 1950's some elementary students living within
about a 30 minute walk of school couldn't take the bus.

1920's
First educationally oriented nursery schools 

1930's
Limiting child labor in non-agricultural jobs
increased education levels.

Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate
  (unable to read or write in any language), by race and nativity: 
1870 to 1979

Year Total White Black and other
Total Native Foreign-born
1870 20.0 11.5 79.9
1900 10.7 6.2 4.6 12.9 44.5
1910 7.7 5.0 3.0 12.7 30.5
1920 6.0 4.0 2.0 13.1 23.0
1930 4.3 3.0 1.6 10.8 16.4
1940 2.9 2.0 1.1 9.0 11.5
1947 2.7 1.8 11.0
1952 2.5 1.8 10.2
1959 2.2 1.6 7.5
1979 0.6 0.4 1.6 *
* Based on black population only
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, Series P-23, Ancestry and Language in the United States: November 1979. (This table was prepared in September 1992.)

College and Head Start Get Governmental Attention

1940's
GI education benefits

ended long-standing college only for the wealthy. 

Increased college and free CC education become important goals.

MBA popularized 
when former U.S. Air Force engineering oriented Whiz Kids
 needed business and management education
to properly reorganizing Ford Motor Company. 

1950's 
Federal funding increased

for science, math and foreign language education
 as in 1957 a Sputnik Reaction Sputnik heighted the Cold War. 

1960's
College enrollments expanded
because of increased Baby Boomer demand and some HS graduates
 hope for a Vietnam War education deferment.

Head Start 
began with
eight-week summer programs
 to provide low-income child assistance.

1970's
Private colleges begin an expanded marketing mix
with evening programs, credit for life experience,
non-credit programs for business and increased foreign
student enrollments. Cash was maximized with
the help of enrollment consultants who design
cost affective student programs, designed enhanced
promotional materials to maximize college revenues
 and to developed many a multi-tiered tuition
pricing systems
. These schemes increased tuition more than
needed with less desirable students paying 100% and their
excess tuition used to provide grant to for more desirable students.

Tuition increases began to increase dramatically as  amounts charged became a function of what a student could pay plus what they could borrow from government sponsored low interest rate deferred loan programs. Eventually federal Pell Grants were added to the pie.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
In 1962, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 10988. That famous order led to state laws permitting the unionization of public employees
 

In 1969, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, ruled that the Constitution forbids local schools from suspending students who bring political protest inside the schools. In his dissent, Justice Black wrote: "This case, wholly without constitutional reasons in my judgment, subjects all the public schools in the country to the whims and caprices of their loudest-mouthed, but maybe not their brightest, students." Now we know: He was right

Two years later, in Goss v. Lopez, the Court established and enumerated the due-process procedures to which a student suspended for less than 10 days is entitled. In dissent, Justice Powell wrote: "One who does not comprehend the meaning and necessity for discipline is handicapped not merely in his education but throughout his subsequent life."
In the years since, courts and legislatures gave the neighborhood school yet another big legal obligation: Mainstream and educate severely disabled students
 
 
We now have "The Language Police," education historian Diane Ravitch's meticulous but horrifying narrative of how the major textbook publishers, the testing companies and state education departments have reduced what public-school kids learn to politically correct, politically laughable pabulum and swill.

Homeschooling and Teacher Education
 Become Big Business

1980's

Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education
grew homeschooling with states helping by  
lowered education compliance standards. 

Masters Teaching
programs
fostered teaching improvement
and made government paid summer workshops popular.

A Nation at Risk
increased the awareness of  public education needs
 and teacher training were initiated in response to .
 

Consultants said computers could help
so governments provide more computers
and teacher computer education.

1990's
 
Charter school movement
in Minnesota's creates a new industry.

Common curriculum and statewide tests
began in Massachusetts with a comprehensive Assessment System.            

Universal preschool
to all four year olds became available in Georgia.

Continued Dissatisfaction With Results 
Leads to More Governmental Action

2000's 
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
nationalized some state educational activates.

Certain school voucher programs were ruled constitutional.

Common Core State Standards Initiative began.

Building American Skills Through Community- Colleges
hoped to retrain workers for jobs lost to international  trade agreements.

Long -Term Testing Result
show no significant increase
from increase spending over fifty years. Source

Image of a line graph with three horizontal lines showing average scores for age 9, age 13, and age 17 students. The X axis is labeled year and shows various years from 1971 through 2012. The Y axis is labeled scale score and shows a range of scores from 0 to 500. Each horizontal line consists of two assessment variations: original assessment format and revised assessment format. 
      There are two data points in the transition year between original and revised formats. 
      For Reading age 9: The original format was used, In 1971 = 208, significantly different from 2012; 
      In 1975 = 210, significantly different from 2012; In 1980 = 215, significantly different from 2012;
       In 1984 = 211, significantly different from 2012; In 1988 = 212, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1990 = 209, significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 211, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1994 = 211, significantly different from 2012; In 1996 = 212, significantly different from 2012; In 1999 = 
       212, significantly different from 2012; In 2004 = 219; The revised format was used, In 2004 = 216, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 220; and In 2012 = 221. For Reading age 13: 
       The original format was used, In 1971 = 255, significantly different from 2012; In 1975 = 256, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1980 = 258, significantly different from 2012; In 1984 = 257, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1988 = 257, significantly different from 2012; In 1990 = 257, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 260; In 1994 = 258, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1996 = 258, significantly different from 2012; In 1999 = 259, significantly different from 2012;
        In 2004 = 259, significantly different from 2012; The revised format was used, In 2004 = 257, 
        significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 260, significantly different from 2012; and In 2012 = 263. 
        For Reading age 17: The original format was used, In 1971 = 285; In 1975 = 286; In 1980 = 285;
         In 1984 = 289; In 1988 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1990 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1994 = 288; In 1996 = 288; In 1999 = 288; In 2004 = 285; 
         The revised format was used, In 2004 = 283, significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 286; and In 2012 = 287.
 

2010's Colleges Begin Another Major Adjustment

 

as the popular press finally publicizes the poor economic
returnee received by many college graduates.

See

Student Loan Default Rate Isn't Good News

Majors That Pay You Back

   Proposed Education Manifesto pdf

Walter Antoniotti  9/22/17

antonw@ix.netcom.com