First public community college
First junior high school improves high school graduation rates.
First Montessori school
extension services and federal funding added
to grants universities which began on 1860's.
vocational education provided
federal funding until 1997 when programs were
unified to provide one-stop shopping.
Transportation funding for school children
provided by all states. Editor's Note: As late as
the mid 1950's some elementary students living within
about a 30 minute walk of school couldn't take the bus.
oriented nursery schools
Limiting child labor
in non-agricultural jobs
Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate
(unable to read or write in any language), by race and nativity:
Based on black population only
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to
1970; and Current Population Reports, Series P-23, Ancestry and
Language in the United States: November 1979. (This table was
prepared in September 1992.)
and Head Start Get
GI education benefits
long-standing college only for the
free CC education become important goals.
when former U.S. Air Force
needed business and
to properly reorganizing Ford Motor Company.
Federal funding increased
for science, math and foreign
as in 1957 a
Sputnik Reaction Sputnik heighted the Cold
of increased Baby Boomer
demand and some HS graduates
hope for a
Vietnam War education deferment.
eight-week summer programs
to provide low-income
begin an expanded marketing mix
with evening programs, credit for life experience,
non-credit programs for business and increased foreign
student enrollments. Cash was maximized with
the help of enrollment
consultants who design
cost affective student programs, designed enhanced
promotional materials to maximize college
and to developed many a multi-tiered
pricing systems. These schemes increased tuition
needed with less desirable students paying 100% and their
excess tuition used to provide grant to for more desirable students.
began to increase dramatically
as amounts charged became a function of what a student could pay
plus what they could
borrow from government sponsored low interest rate deferred loan programs.
Eventually federal Pell Grants were added to the pie.
President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 10988. That
famous order led to state laws permitting the
unionization of public employees
the U.S. Supreme Court, in Tinker
v. Des Moines Independent Community School District,
ruled that the
Constitution forbids local schools from suspending students who
bring political protest inside the schools.
In his dissent, Justice Black wrote: "This case, wholly without
constitutional reasons in my judgment, subjects all the public
schools in the country to the whims and caprices of their
loudest-mouthed, but maybe not their brightest, students." Now
we know: He was right
established and enumerated the due-process procedures to which a
student suspended for less than 10 days is entitled.
In dissent, Justice Powell wrote: "One who does not comprehend
the meaning and necessity for discipline is handicapped not
merely in his education but throughout his subsequent life."
the years since,
courts and legislatures gave the neighborhood school yet another
big legal obligation:
Mainstream and educate severely disabled students.
We now have "The Language Police," education historian Diane Ravitch's
meticulous but horrifying narrative of how the major textbook
publishers, the testing companies and state education
reduced what public-school kids learn to politically correct,
politically laughable pabulum and swill.
and Teacher Education
Become Big Business
Teach Your Own: A
Hopeful Path for Education
homeschooling with states helping by
lowered education compliance
government paid summer workshops popular.
Nation at Risk
increased the awareness of public education needs
initiated in response to .
Consultants said computers could help
so governments provide
and teacher computer education.
in Minnesota's creates a new industry.
Common curriculum and
began in Massachusetts with a comprehensive Assessment System.
four year olds became available in Georgia.