20th Century Brief History of American Education  
from
Education History Timeline and the Author's Experiences

1900 - 1944 H.S. and Vocational Education Get Governmental Attention

1945- 1980's College and Head Start Gets Governmental Attention

1980's Homeschooling and Teacher Education Becomes a Business

1980's Onward Dissatisfaction With Education Results 
Leads to More Governmental Action

2010's Colleges begin another major adjustment 


H.S. and Vocational Education Get Governmental Attention

1900's First public community college
 

First junior high school hopes to improve high school graduation rates

1910's First Montessori school Cooperative extension
            services
for 1860 and 1890 land grants
            universities became federal funded  

            Agricultural and vocational education provided
            federal funding
until 1997 when programs were
            unified to provide one-stop shopping

           Transportation funding  for school children
           provided by all states Editor's Note: As late as 
           the mid 1950's elementary students living within
           about a 30 minute walk couldn't take the bus.

1920's First educationally oriented nursery schools 

1930's Limiting child labor in non-agricultural jobs
          
hopes to increase education levels

Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate
  (unable to read or write in any language), by race and nativity: 
1870 to 1979

Year Total White Black and other
Total Native Foreign-born
1870 20.0 11.5 79.9
1900 10.7 6.2 4.6 12.9 44.5
1910 7.7 5.0 3.0 12.7 30.5
1920 6.0 4.0 2.0 13.1 23.0
1930 4.3 3.0 1.6 10.8 16.4
1940 2.9 2.0 1.1 9.0 11.5
1947 2.7 1.8 11.0
1952 2.5 1.8 10.2
1959 2.2 1.6 7.5
1979 0.6 0.4 1.6 *
* Based on black population only
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, Series P-23, Ancestry and Language in the United States: November 1979. (This table was prepared in September 1992.)

College and Head Start Get Governmental Attention

1940's GI education benefits ended long-standing college
           only for the wealthy. 

          Doubling of college enrollments and expanded
          free CC education were set as
1960 goals

          MBA popularized when former U.S. Air Force
          engineering oriented Whiz Kids needed business
          and management  education to properly
          reorganizing Ford Motor Company. 

1950's Federal funding increased for science, math
           and foreign language education as Sputnik 
           heighted the Cold War. 

1960's College enrollments expanded because of
           increased Baby Boomer demand  and hope 
           for a Vietnam War education deferment.

           Head Start eight-week summer programs
           provide low-income child assistance.

1980's Private colleges expanded marketing mix
          
with evening programs, credit for life experience
           non-credit programs for business and foreign
           student enrollments. Cash was maximized with
           the help of enrollment consultants who design
           cost affective student program s, designed 
           promotional materials to maximize college
           appearance and to developed a multi-tiered tuition
           pricing system
. It increase tuition more than cash
           needs with less desirable students paying 100%.
           Their excess tuition provided grant funding for more
           desirable.

 

students. 

Tuition increase dramatically as  charged became a function of what a student could pay and borrow from government sponsored low interest deferred loan programs plus Pell Grants. 

                 Homeschooling and Teacher Education 
Becomes a Business

1980's Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education
         
grew homeschooling with states helping with 
          lowered education compliance standards. 

           Mastery Teaching fostered teaching improvement
           and made government paid summer workshops
           popular.

           Sweeping reforms in public education and
           teacher training were initiated in response to
           A Nation at Risk.

.          Consultants said computers could help so
           governments provide more computers and 
           teacher computer education was needed.

1990's  Charter schools in Minnesota's begins a new
            industry.

            Common curriculum and statewide tests
            began in Massachusetts with a comprehensive
            Assessment System.            

            Universal preschool to all four year olds became
            available in Georgia.

Dissatisfaction With Education Results 
Leads to More Governmental Action

2000's  No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) nationalized
            some state educational activates.

            Certain school voucher programs are ruled
            constitutional

            Common Core State Standards Initiative begins.

            Building American Skills Through CC
            hopes to retrain workers for jobs lost to trade
            agreements.
 

            Long -Term Testing Result
                   
show no return from excess spending change
            over fifty years. Source

Image of a line graph with three horizontal lines showing average scores for age 9, age 13, and age 17 students. The X axis is labeled year and shows various years from 1971 through 2012. The Y axis is labeled scale score and shows a range of scores from 0 to 500. Each horizontal line consists of two assessment variations: original assessment format and revised assessment format. 
      There are two data points in the transition year between original and revised formats. 
      For Reading age 9: The original format was used, In 1971 = 208, significantly different from 2012; 
      In 1975 = 210, significantly different from 2012; In 1980 = 215, significantly different from 2012;
       In 1984 = 211, significantly different from 2012; In 1988 = 212, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1990 = 209, significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 211, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1994 = 211, significantly different from 2012; In 1996 = 212, significantly different from 2012; In 1999 = 
       212, significantly different from 2012; In 2004 = 219; The revised format was used, In 2004 = 216, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 220; and In 2012 = 221. For Reading age 13: 
       The original format was used, In 1971 = 255, significantly different from 2012; In 1975 = 256, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1980 = 258, significantly different from 2012; In 1984 = 257, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1988 = 257, significantly different from 2012; In 1990 = 257, 
       significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 260; In 1994 = 258, significantly different from 2012; 
       In 1996 = 258, significantly different from 2012; In 1999 = 259, significantly different from 2012;
        In 2004 = 259, significantly different from 2012; The revised format was used, In 2004 = 257, 
        significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 260, significantly different from 2012; and In 2012 = 263. 
        For Reading age 17: The original format was used, In 1971 = 285; In 1975 = 286; In 1980 = 285;
         In 1984 = 289; In 1988 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1990 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1992 = 290, significantly different from 2012; In 1994 = 288; In 1996 = 288; In 1999 = 288; In 2004 = 285; 
         The revised format was used, In 2004 = 283, significantly different from 2012; In 2008 = 286; and In 2012 = 287.

2010's Colleges begin another major adjustment 
as the popular press finally publicizes the poor economic
returnee received by many college graduates and
those attending private vocational schools. 

            Student Loan Default Rate Isn't Good News
             

           See Majors that pay you back and chart