U.S. Political Economy 1788-2016
Elections 1788-1824 England's Political Influence Finally Ends and the South Has Some Success in Controlling Northern Business Interests.\
Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and the men of wealth who should run government.
Republicans under Jefferson Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda. They stressed being more of a Republic where the individual is sovereign as opposed to democracy where the sovereign is the group, the majority.
Executive privilege was used by G.W. to keep
Jay Treaty documents
from Congress. Other Presidents would claim the right, courts would
sometimes have to decide legality. Think NSA data
State's Rights and Democracy vs. Republican, the Fight Begins
When the Democratic-Republican Party of the Jefferson became factionalized in the 1820's, Andrew Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party. It hoped to take political power from the established elites to ordinary voters. It supported the predominance of the Presidency over the other branches of the U.S. Federal government. They continued the Bank War by opposing a bank charter renewal of Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United State. Democrats also opposed Whig sponsored modernizing programs which they felt would helped industry at the expense of the taxpayer. These battles continue today! Democrats fought Adams and Anti-Jacksonian factions which soon emerged as the Whig party. They were led by Henry Clay who advocated the primacy of Congress over the Executive Branch. They opposed economic protectionism for Northeastern industry.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Indians
2) 1933 Compromise Tariff decreased the North-South fight over protectionism.
3) 1838 Mormon War ended with roughly 20,000 Mormons relocated. Think Middle East refugee problem.
4) A failed 1842 J. Taylor Impeachment attempt occurred because he had used his Presidential veto to over ride Northeast bank and tariff issues. Previous Presidential vetoes had been on Constitutional grounds not because the President did not like the bill.. It would be the first of a few politically motivated impeachment attempts.
Think the Obama impeachment poll and liberal radio attacks on Trump.
5) The Mexican War was settled with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It increased the U.S. landmass by a third. Slave Power accusations were common. The Oregon Treaty acquired much of the Northwest territory and what would be six states. England got British Columbia.
6) The Compromise of 1850 postponed Civil War again and the 1864 Kansas Nebraska Act increased tensions.
Think postponing government budget problems.
Elections 1856-1896 Civil War Ends, Northeast Takes Control, The Gilded Age is Built on the Backs of the Poor, Especially Women, Immigrants, and Blacks The civil War was followed by massive industrialization centered on rail roads, canals and steamships. Massive wealth was created. Farm mechanism lowered the cost of food and this coupled with science made for a somewhat more prosperous middle class. Immigrants suffered.
Progressives and Populists
Finally End to the
Gilded Age But
Business Power Would Return
After WW I. The 1896
realigning election resulted in a Republican Party forged conservative coalition.
It consisted of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and
prosperous farmers. There would be
much opposition resulting in two unsettled decades.
Panic of 1857 was caused by a low gold-backed money supply
resulting from high consumption of European goods. Overbuilding by competing railroads and rampant Western land
speculation caused speculative financial problems. Think
2) The Civil War was more than a fight to eliminate slavery.
3) Enforcement Acts of 1870-71 were designed to protect Indians and blacks from the Ku Klux Klan. It failed.
4) The Panic of 1873 was caused by a low money supply caused by the Coinage Act of 1873. Workers blamed cheap foreign labor. It was called the Long Depression until the 1930's when the Great Depression caused more hardship. It would not be the last time immigrants were blamed for worker problems. Think Trump's Wall.
5) The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 added merit to the government hiring process. Thus began the replacement of the spoils system in the federal hiring equation.
6) The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 lasted until 1942. The Scott Act of 1888 expanded the restrictions on Chinese immigration. Think current Muslim Immigration issues.
7) The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began an attempt to regulate business trusts and decrease their use of monopoly power.
8) The McKinley Tariff of 1890 set a record for high rates. Profits increased as did the price of consumers goods.
9) Panic of 1893 resulted in a severe depression. Reluctantly J.P. Morgan bailed out the gold standard with $60,000,000. The 1894 Wilson–Gorman Tariff lowered tariffs slightly & created a 2% income tax on high over $4,000 ($88,100 in 2010 dollars) income. The 1895 Supreme Court. declared it unconstitutional.
was desired by colonial empire and business interests.
Business also had pushed for the 1897
Dingley Tariff Act which
at the expense of consumers who paid higher tariff induced prices. The
Gold Standard protected savers
from inflation but its inflexible money supply caused hard
Elections 1932-present Party Control Flip Flops Like a Yoyo but Progress Is Being Made. Republicans were penalized by outrage caused during the summer of 1932 because of Veteran Bonus Army deaths. It combined with the of Hoover's domestic policies and change was demanded. A similar major change happened with Reagonomics, See Liberal Richard Wolff's Video On Reaganomics
|Democrats promoted American Liberalism. It anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, African Americans). White Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups were also courted.|
American Citizens in 1942 consisted of 150,000
mostly Japanese men, women
|1 The idea that Muslims Extremism is behind all military confrontations in the Middle East and Africa reminds me of the Cold War. Then, regime change in Egypt and Syria plus Para military confrontations in Central and South American were all said to be inspired by Communist. Looking back neither Egypt nor Syria became Communistic and few of these conflicts resulted in communist governments. Oligarch looking to control these and other lesser-developed countries need money, the USSR would contribute to one side, and the U.S. would contribute to the other side. Today, conservative Muslims have the money to help local Oligarchs wanting to control resources and the West fights to keep their current resource share.||2According to Henry Kissinger's biographer Walter Isaacson, President Johnson's reason for U.S. involvement in Vietnam was the Domino Theory. It stated that Nation A falling to Communism would make it easier for Communism to gain control of Nation B and then Nation C. This idea was already being questioned when Nixon took offices. Both Henry and Nixon did not believe in the Domino Theory. Still it was six years before we were forced out of Vietnam. Henry's reason for taking so long and not withdrawing in the promised six months was the importance of maintaining U.S. foreign policy creditability. No one asked the correct question. Such statements that "something will hurt the U.S." should be followed by questions pertaining to how much harm will be done, in relation to what and at what cost? About half of the U.S. causalities occurred during the Nixon-Kissinger watch even though both men entered office thinking the Vietnam War was not winnable.|