U.S. Political Eras
England's Political Influence and that of the Founding Fathers
2) 1828-1852 Federalism vs. State's Rights
Civil War, Northeast Takes Control, Gilded Age Wealth Built on the
Trump's New Political Era? Waiting for another flip or conservative victory 10/20/18
Political Economy Internet Library
1) 1788-1824 Founding Fathers and England's Political Influence Ends South Has Some Success in Controlling Northern Business Interests
The causes of the American Revolution began with a disagreement over the way Great Britain treated the colonies. Americans wanted the rights of Englishmen. Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, and close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system. Close links between government and men of wealth who should run government was also desired. The Democratic-Republican Party of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist. Instead they wanted more state's rights for the developing Democratic Federalist Republic. See Characteristics of Market System Capitalism and Political Economy.
Executive privilege was created by President Washington to keep
Jay Treaty documents
from Congress. Other Presidents would claim the right and courts would
sometimes have to decide legality. Think NSA data
5) Jefferson's philosophical inconsistency was typified by the Louisiana Purchase. The constitution did not give the government authority to purchase half the continent. Jefferson ignored his strict constructionist beliefs and his desired for limits to government powers.
with France was minimized by Adams despite desires of his Federalist cabinet.
1803 Louisiana Purchase and
2) 1828-1852 Federalism vs. State's Rights
The Democratic-Republican Party of Jefferson became factionalized in the 1820's so Jackson supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party. It hoped to pass political power from an established elites to ordinary voters by ending the spoils system. They continued the Bank War against eastern business interests by opposing the renewal of the Second Bank of the United States. Democrats also opposed Whig sponsored modernizing programs that they felt would build up industry with protectionism at the expense of taxpayers. These battles continue today! Democrats fought Adams and Anti-Jacksonian revival factions which soon emerged as the Whig Party. They were led by Henry Clay who advocated the primacy of Congress over the Executive Branch as well as Northeast industry protectionism. The battle of presidential versus congressional power continues today.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Indians
The civil War was followed by the development of a massive transportation industrialization. It involved railroads, canals and steamships. Massive wealth was created. Farm mechanism lowered the cost of food and this coupled with science made for a somewhat more prosperous middle class. Immigrants suffered.
1) Panic of 1857 was caused by over-consumption of goods from Europe which lowered the hard currency supply. Also overbuilding by competing railroads and rampant Western land speculation caused problems. Think bubbles!
2) Civil War
4) Panic of 1873 was caused by the hard currency Coinage Act of 1873. It lowered the money supply. Workers blamed cheap foreign labor. Called the Long Depression until the 1930's when it was superseded by the Great Depression, it caused severe hardship. It would not be the last time a lack of money and immigrants were blamed for economic problems. See Mexico, United States barrier. Think Great Recession.
7) Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began an attempt to regulate business trusts and harness their use of monopoly power.
8) McKinley Tariff of 1890 set a record for high rates. Profits increased as did the price of consumer goods.
10) The 1894 Wilson–Gorman Tariff lowered tariffs slightly and created a 2% tax on income over $4,000 ($88,100 in 2010dollars). It was declared unconstitutional by the 1895 Supreme Court. Think taxes on the top one-percent.
11) Harrison appoints four conservative S.C. judges to fight
the coming progressive movement.
Panic of 1893 dissatisfaction meant a 1996 realigning election with victory for a republican forged conservative coalition. It consisted of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and prosperous farmers. Liberal opposition meant two unsettled decades called the Progressive Era. It was a period of social activism and political reform which flourished from the 1890s to the early 1920s. Trouble began with Teddy Roosevelt took on the 1902 Coal Strike. See Terror Episodes Since 1900
Exposing political machines to eliminate government corruption was an important progressive goal. They hoped to create a more democratic federalist republic by putting election reform high on their agenda. Progressives also sought regulation of monopolistic trust corporations through antitrust laws. These laws were seen as a means to promote consumer benefit through fair competition. Post WW I Communists and unions created fears of anarchy so conservative government returned. A second Red Scare followed WW2. Then the War on Drugs. Then a War on Terrorism. Then climate fear. Are politicians and media warmongers making us paranoid?
1) The 1897
promoted industry at the expense of consumers as it added to consumer prices.
Fordney McCumber Tariff Act
was one of many protectionist measures during the 1920's.
Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act of 1930
to protect US industries failed to
Canada, France and others
retaliated. A Mexican Repatriation program
help unemployed Mexican citizens
return home. It represented forced migration.
Think current immigration problems.
5) 1932-1996 Party Control Flip-Flops But Some Progress Made
Republicans felt voter outrage caused by Bonus Army veteran deaths during the summer of 1932. It, when combined with the catastrophic economic effects of Hoover's domestic economic policies, indicated a need for change!
Democrats promoted American Liberalism anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, and African Americans), white Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups. Experts debate whether this era ended and a Sixth Party System emerged in the mid-1960s with the end of the New Deal coalition.
This era may have continued into the 1980s when the Moral Majority and the Reagan coalition were formed. While this Republican Revolution was interrupted by Presidents Clinton and Obama, politics flip flopped again with Citizens United_v._FEC allowing increased political contributions, Republicans taking control of Congress , and then Trump Won!
1) For the first time U.S. leaders used massive debt to solve a major
non-military problem (SS and
Like military debt, this new type of debt would be negated by economic growth
and inflation which allowed easy refinancing with little paid back (retired).
3) President Eisenhower pulled out of South Korean and warned of a Military Industrial Complex.
4) Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the worst ever Cold War nuclear crises, was properly managed.
5) Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
6) Voting Rights Act of 1965 assured minority registration and voting ending a 100 year government stalemate.
7) Vietnam War and Watergate scandal
8) Camp David Accords of 1978 was the high point of recent Middle East peace efforts.
9) Tax Act of 1980 began a trend of cutting everyone's income taxes.
10) Too Big to Fail policy rescued Continental Illinois Bank and signaled the beginning of financial industry problems.
11) Coalition of the First Gulf War in1990 repelled invasion of Kuwai
13) Terrorism strikes on 9/11caused fear that subsides a little, then returns before the 2016 presidential election.
ended but slow nominal growth means real national debt will drop
slowly as compared to WW2 debt.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
allowed multi station company ownership and national
The Citizens United v. FEC allowed unregulated non transparent individual political contributions.
Together they ended Yellow Journalism Political Era which began with the Washington Presidency. It had been slowed with the New York Times Ochs Era which changed political reporting with a slogan "All The News That's Fit To Print".
1) 2001 Bush Named War on Terrorism begins.
2) 2011 Don't Ask, Don't Tell battle conducted on talk radio was ended.
2000 Bush v. Gore: installed their preferred partisan presidency stating it
should not be cited as precedent.
NFIB v. Sebelius:
blew a giant hole in the ObamaCare Medicaid expansion
Shelby County v. Holder
stoped state preclearance by federal government
Citizens United v. FEC
near-unlimited corporate election spending
on dark money propaganda