Political Era Election Summaries

  1. 1788-1824 Federalists Yield to Jefferson 4. 1896-1928 Progressives, Then Business Rule  
  2. 1828-1852 State's Rights Fight Begin 5. 1932-1976  Safety Net Parties Flip-Flops, Progress Made  
  3. 1856-1892 War Ends, The Gilded Age.. 6. 1980-2020 Polarity Builds  

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 Era One Elections  1788-1824
Federalists Yield to Jefferson

Federalists favored unity through  a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and men of wealth who should run government.

Republicans of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe  strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda of a strong central government. Instead they wanted more states rights in our developing Democratic Federalist Republic. See Characteristics of Market System Capitalism and Political Economy.

Election Summaries

Federalist Party

Republican Party

Election 1788 and 1792 General George Washington running unopposed was the Electoral College choice. His Farewell Address warned a union of states would come under frequent attacks by foreign/domestic enemies, the importance of separation of powers and
checks and balances, and political factions
who obstruct the execution of laws.
George Washington 1788 to early 1793
Bill of Rights added to the Constitution but didn't apply to state law until 1929.

Executive privilege was used to keep
Jay Treaty documents from Congress. Think Pentagon Papers.

The Whiskey Rebellion of 1791against federal taxes failed.
It was the first of many fights against taxes.

Election 1796 had first political parties with the Jeffersonian-Republicans accusing the ruling Federalists of favoring an Oligarchy of the wealthy. Most favored Federalists Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton who was not nominated as he had created many enemies and would not beat Jefferson. John Adams 1793 to early 2001
Alien and Sedition Acts limited citizen rights and sent news people to jail as paranoia swept America because a liberal democratic revolutions was ravaging Europe. War would cause most future Presidents to limit freedoms in the name of national security. 
Marbury v. Madison resulted in the process of
Judicial Review  Was the Court creating law? Did SC go from 3rd to 1st in the power battle?

Election of 1800 resulted in an Electoral College tie and the outgoing House of Reprehensive elected Jefferson over Federalist Adams. The three-fifths compromise and increased slave numbers meant more southern victories and much future consternation. Political philosophy attributed to of Jefferson influenced many for over 200 years.

T. Jefferson 1801–1808

Jefferson's political inconsistency was verified by Louisiana Purchase
as he ignored his strict constructionist.

Embargo Act of 1807 ignored strict constitutional interpretation. 
It halted European trade because as nations were not respecting freedom of the seas.
It hurt New England merchants and was perceived as favoring France over Brittan.

Election of 1808 had opposition to Jefferson's export ban but friend Madison easily won over Charles Pinckney.
Election of 1812 was fought in the shadow of the War of 1812. It was intriguing as Democratic-Republican candidate President  Madison was opposed by fellow party member D. Clinton the nephew of Madison's late VP G. Clinton. Candidate Clinton was anti-war in the North and for war in the South. Federalist R. King received no electoral votes.
J. Madison 1809–1816 initiated the Democratic-Republican Party

Father of the Bill of Rights Editor's Note: Jefferson and Madison both wanted a limited federal government, strict interpretation of the constitution, and no debt. But they wanted to buy Louisiana and West Florida so they temporarily stopped being Strict Constructionists.

Bank of United States charter was not renewed in an attempt to limit business influence but paying for the War of 1812 required such an institution and Madison agreed.

The Infant industry argument along with revenue collection resulted in the Tariff of 1816.

Election, 1816 began the Era of Good Feelings (1816–1824) and ended the First Party System. It was run by Eastern money interests who wanted protective tariffs with resulting revenue to help industry. Rural interests wanted low tariffs with resulting cheaper goods. The  Federalist's elitism had diminished their influence and their anti-war stance proved devastating when the war ended well. Plus some of Federalist beliefs were adopted by easy winner Monroe. J. Monroe 1817–1824
Implied powers were derived from the Necessary and Proper Clause during the 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland U.S. bank case . Congress won power battle.

Monroe Doctrine of 1823 keeps U.S out of European politics until WWI. It was also done to keep Europe out of the Caribbean and far western territories. These were to be US spheres of influence. European monarch, especially after the anarchy of the French Revolution, were very anti-democratic. Editor's Note: The Northeast business interest vs. South/West rural interest battles continues today.

Election of 1824 had the Democratic-Republican Party splintered with four presidential candidates. A Second Party System was coming. Later the Andrew Jackson faction evolved into the modern Democratic Party while factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party. Then the Whig Party. The corrupt bargain elected J. Q. Adams for one term. J. Q. Adams 1825–1828 The "American System" of internal improvements of road-building, a national bank to help productive Eastern business and a national currency all initiated by Alexander Hamilton were financed by the 1828 "Tariff of Abominations. It later caused the Nullification Crisis as states questioned federal authority over states.  Editor's Note: This was beginning of the two continuing fights, 1) the use of tariff to finance government 2) states versus federal power.
J. Calhoun and H. Clay controlled the National Republican Party with a less restrictive Federalists agenda than  A. Hamilton.

2024 Election Information

Poor Media Coverage of Importance Issues?
Low Means Issue Not as Important to Party Members



1999- 2023 Voter Characteristics

More Liberal: All Women, Older men.
Unchanged: Younger Men
Unknown: Middle Aged Potential Voters 


 Negative Attitude Causing Both Parties to Lose Potential Voters

  President Approval No Longer Tied to Consumer Feelings.

Both political parties could be using an outdated playbook.
Polarized politics mean that 
voters’ views of the economy
are increasingly shaped by their party preference,
rather than the other way around.


And for some key voting blocs, noneconomic issues such as immigration,
race relations and Mr.Trump himself have superseded economic concerns in determining their vote. 






























2. 1828-1852 State's Rights Fight Begins

3. 1856-1892 War Ends, The Gilded Age...

4. 1896-1928 Progressives Then  Business Rule

5. 1932-1976  Safety Net Parties Flip-Flops Progress Made

6. 1980-2020 Polarity Builds