Luther's American Legacy
Base Upon
Michael Massing's Fatal- Discord.

Return to 
A Concise History of Christianity 
7/19/20   Please link to, use to educate, and share. 

  Lutheranism Theology: Sovereignty of God means removal of Original Sin through a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of scripture alone", makes scripture the final authority on all matters of faith. Rome had tradition an integral part in determining approved procedures." Martin Luther believed in the need for reformation of the Roman Catholic Church and that Christian can get salvation through an individual search for Christ.

John Calvin added Predestination to the ideas of Luther. "... all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul." He thought people were already chosen for salvation so good works would make no difference.' Double predestination, or the double decree, is the doctrine that God actively reprobates, or decrees damnation of some, as well as salvation for those whom he has elected.

Part #1
The Early Years
Puritans Baptists Congregationalists Presbyterians Anglican Church
Location Most of NE Rhode Island Massachusetts Middle States Virginia, Maryland 
New Direction Reform Church of England
City Upon a Hill
Baptizing Believers was
one of Six Principle
Autonomous Congregations See Calvinism  
Oligarchs in Charge Church Leaders None Congregation Representative Assembly of Elders Henry 8 replaced Pope
My Way or the highway Follow or be Banished, especially in relation to personal behavior Relegiouse Freedom Accept Christ    
Key Leader   Cotton Mather 1663-1728 Roger William 1603-1683 Jonathan Edwards 1703-1758
Evangelical, Reformer
  Church of England
New Direction 2 Be an example for others Separatist wanting more reform Personal Faith   Book of
Common Prayer
Accomplishment  Leading Relegion Separation of State from Church 2  First Great Awakening    
Less Influenced Denominations Methodism Founded by English clergymen John Wesley and George Whitefield, it  focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on character.
doctrines: an assurance of salvationimparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, and the primacy of Scripture.
Episcopal Church see Anglican Church
Others Protestant Religions   Dutch Reformed Church   Quakers   Roman Catholic Church
# 3 Social Gospel Movements Industrialization sharpened relations between geographic denominations.
W. Rauschenbusch, a NY Baptist minister became a leading figure in a 
Social Gospel Movement.
The Federal Council of Churches in Christ  was formed to enhance wellbeing.
It became the center of modern Protestantism.
Atheist philosophies like Nihilism and Darwinism plus a lack of improved urban wellbeing ended many evangelical urban activities and led to the rise of Christian fundamentalism. These militant anti-modernists were led by William Jennings Bryant. The National Association of Evangelicals formed in 1942 as a for less militant, docile evangelicals.
# 4 Modern Evangelicalism Theology: 1) Conversions by a new birth experience with God 2) reliance on the bible as the ultimate authority, 3) focus on Christ's sacrifice on the cross and 4) an activism drive to share their faith. The first three are directly related to Luther and missionary work is related to German Pietism.

Reverend Billy Graham was a Southern Baptist minister who was strongly influenced by Luther He began Modern Evangelicalism on 9/25/49 with a planned 3 weeks LA revivals It was expanded to twice the size with five weeks added after W.R. Hearst newspapers provided positive publicity. Reverend Graham accelerated the move away from mainline Protestantism toward evangelical Protestantism. As a result, the Southern Baptist Convention  doubled to almost 14,000,000 members. Mega churches resulted.

Pentecostalism, the Holiness Movement, and the Charismatic Movement were all based on individual conversion. They were a response to the Sexual Revolution, the Women's Movement , Gay Rights and the social disruptions of the 1960's and 70's.

In 1979 Jerry Farwell revived the Assertive Fundamentalism of the 1920's with his Moral Majority. He used PACs, mobilized mass communication and his large audience. helped elect President Ronald Reagan. This made the Christian Right a dominate political player. In 2000 George Bush became our second modern evangelical president. Jimmy Carter was the first.

Support for the Christian Right has been limited. The moral majority folded and its successor, the Christian Coalition of America never reached three million members. Militant Fundamentalists are intensely moralistic and politically active. They are the true hairs of Calvinism. Most evangelicals are not militant fundamentalist. They are less belligerent, more toward the political center, conservative, and represent about 25% of our population. Eighty-one percent voted for Donald Trump.


Part #2 Evangelicalism
rejected the skeptical
deism of the Enlightenment.

Second Great Awakening enhances both Methodism and Baptist membership. 
A populism rooted in the individualism of Lutheranism and communicated by
E. Smith.

Calvinism lost New England to the Unitarianism spread by of Boston preacher
W. E. Channing. He stressed the oneness of God, no

Geographical separation occurred. The Southern dominations stressed Private Personal Protestant and winning souls for Christ. Northern Public Protestants stress improving social and economic wellbeing.

Southern success led Evangelist Dwight Moody's to dominate northern urban areas.

Geographical separation occurred. The Southern dominations stressed Private Personal Protestant and winning souls for Christ. Northern Public Protestants stress improving social and economic wellbeing.

Southern success led Evangelist Dwight Moody's to dominate northern urban areas.

























Difference between Catholics and Protestants from A History of England from the Tudors to the Stuarts

Catholics: found religious truth in Scripture, Tradition, and Papal and Conciliari decree
Salvation required faith and good works, especially the Seven Sacraments ,which forgave sins  and produced grace.

Protestants found religious truth in scriptures
 required faith

See Book Of Martyrs


The Pilgrimage of Grace,   

Failures[edit source]

The Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace have traditionally been seen as failures for the following reasons:

  • England was not reconciled to the Roman Catholic Church, except during the brief reign of Mary I (1553–1558).
  • The dissolution of the monasteries continued unabated, with the largest monasteries being dissolved (sold for profit to pay for war) by 1540.
  • Great tracts of land were seized from the Church and divided among the Crown and its supporters.
  • The steps towards official Protestantism achieved by Cromwell continued, except during the reign of Mary I.

Successes[edit source]

Their partial successes are less known:

  • The government postponed the collection of the October subsidy, a major grievance amongst the Lincolnshire organisations.
  • The Statute of Uses was partially negated by a new law, the Statute of Wills.
  • Four of the seven sacraments that were omitted from the Ten Articles were restored in the Bishop's Book of 1537, which marked the end of the drift of official doctrine towards Protestantism. The Bishop's Book was followed by the Six Articles of 1539.
  • An onslaught upon heresy was promised in a royal proclamation in 1538.

Poor Law of 1601 was needed to replace Roman Catholic assistance


16th Century English Life

A History of England from the Tudors to the Stuarts


Uneven1525-1600 Population growth was caused 1) food shortages (bad harvests in the 1540s, 1550s, 1590s, 1620s, and 1650s caused high prices led to a few famines) and  2) plague epidemics (he sweating sickness, or influenza, smallpox, cholera, typhus, typhoid fever, and whooping cough. Population went from 2.4 million to over 5.5 million.

The early-modern English economy created winners and losers. Landowners did well because of food  shortages. The oversupply of tenants meant higher rents and some could buy new land cheaply because the dissolution of the monasteries created a surplus. Some prosperous yeomen to rise into their ranks.

Economic Structure
The nobility
(comprising dukes, marquesses, earls, viscounts, and barons) was expanded from about 40 families in 1485, to about 130 by the 1640s. They did well economically from rents and sale of produce grown on their land. But the Tudors had effectively reduced their power by outlawing private armies, replacing great magnates with councils or direct rule, and ruining rebellious peers by attainder, execution, and confiscation of lands. The sheer expense of aristocratic life ruined many.

The gentry (comprising knights, esquires, and plain gentlemen) was expanding in size and wealth, as well as in importance. Monastic land sales swelled their ranks from about 6,500 in 1540 to perhaps 20,000 in 1640, or about 2 percent of the population. Earnings ranged from £500 to several thousand pounds a year. The lesser parish gentry, with but one estate, might struggle to make £100. The House of Commons, dominated by the gentry, was becoming the more important of the two Houses of Parliament.



Yeomen were substantial farmers, perhaps 90,000 families in 1600. During this period, they split. Greater yeomen, with large estates and excelling
the parish gentry in wealth, profi ted from inflation.  Lesser yeomen who had no tenants made £40 - £200 a year lost ground as prices rose.

Husbandmen (held up to 30 acres of land made £15 - £30 a year)

Cottagers, who renting their home making a few pounds a year, suffered the most from these economic conditions. Many  took on extra work, their wives helped by spinning or weaving wool cloth. Many went into debt to purchase crops or fell behind on their rents. Many during the 1590s, 1620s, and 1650s were unable to pay and thrown off their land. They then joined the ranks of the poor.

Very poor were of husbandmen and cottagers who had lost their land and often  became migrants.

Tenants and landless laborers did poorly. The glut of tenants made replacement of delinquent land renters tenants easier. Many move to cities and towns for more plentiful work but population growth and a decline of the wool trade increased their plight. After 1607 some migrated to colonies in America. Others failed to find jobs, became vagrants and, thus, outlaws.

During this period, the rich were getting richer and the poor, poorer. An increasing cultural  gap, according to some, made nonsense of the old traditions of paternalism and deference.

Life Style

During this period, the rich were getting richer and the poor, poorer. Some historians have argued that this economic gap was mirrored by an increasing cultural distance between aristocratic landlords and their tenants that made nonsense of the old traditions of paternalism and deference.

Houses were more comfortable than 1485.
Yeoman might have a multi-roomed timber-frame or brick house with a hall with a hearth, a storage rooms a parlor and upstairs bedrooms with feather beds
Husbandmen and cottagers lived in houses of two or more rooms.
Ordinary people had more possessions.

Diet had not changed in centuries.
Yeomen live on meat and fish (for the well off), wheaten bread, dairy products, wine and beer.
Husbandmen and cottagers had rye bread, milk and cheese, and beer.


English Family Life During Economically Troubled 16th Century

Marriage Courtship revolved around community and material circumstances still mattered.

Young people often met while in service, at church, during the harvest ...
Most was directed toward marriage with little “casual dating.” Young people below the level of the elite were freeer to choose their own partners
 because there was no property to worry about. Married for love was thus more prevalent.
Women looked for good providers. Men looked for effective managers
Married occurred later in life, in the late twenties for men and mid-twenties and for women because they needed time to afford to a household.
Parents and community might be involved to foil an unsuitable match, that is, one that would  end being supported by the parish poor rate.
A promise to marry was considered a virtual marriage in canon law meaning physical relations could begin with party agreement.
As a result, about 20 percent of all brides went to the altar pregnant. This was frowned on by the church, but promises were not taken  lightly
or to trick the other person into a sexual relationship: The illegitimacy rate in early modern England was only 2 to 3 percent.

Migration from job loss caused Smaller Later in Life Families With Fewer siblings

Nearly 80 percent of married couples having had a child within the first two years of marriage.
Relying on local midwives, and without painkillers or antibiotics made childbirth difficult but only 4% of the mothers died.
Early menopause and primitive contraception reduced childbearing.
Yet infant mortality at all ranks was high. One in eight children died within the first year.
Mothers nursing may have facilitated bonding with children and lengthen intervals between pregnancies.
One-quarter of all children died before age 10 which my have decreased parental bonding
Follow the dictates of Saint Paul, husbands were to rule over and love their submissive wives
Physical correction was a last resort and physical abuse was not tolerated.
Rapid remarriage was expected, especially for a property owing widows. 
Widows were assumed to have sexual experience that had to be channeled.

Heavily physical work from sunup to sundown was not highly structured-not timed or pressurized.
Men plowed, planted, reaped, and repaired fences.
Women milked, weeded, sewed, spun wool, cared for children and during peak times would join their husbands in the fields.
Children were assigned light tasks according to their ages, mostly helping with animals.

Life at home was marginally more comfortable than it had been in 1485.

Houses and Positions had grown more elaborate.

Yeoman might live in a multi-roomed timber-frame or brick house  with a hall with hearth in the middle
and two wing, one for storage and the other, a parlor.  Bedrooms were upstairs.
Positions included feather beds, pewter, even silver, and books.

Husbandmen and cottagers lived in houses of two or more rooms.
Possessions included sheets, pots and pans.

Diet had not changed in centuries.
had meat and maybe fish,, wheaten bread, dairy products, and wine and beer.
Husbandmen and cottagers had rye bread, milk and cheese, and beer.

Healthy and a long life, even in good times, was enjoyed by few people regardless of status
Hygiene and diet's affect on disease were centuries away.
Simple infections could prove fatal,  accidents were common, no one knew how to swim and the few doctors helped little.

Life of education and servic for childrem.

Merchants and yeomen children went to grammar schools until adolescence.
Schools charged high fees a curriculum centered on Latin and English.

Husbandmen and cottagers children went to petty schools until needed on the farm.
Often endowed by the local wealthy, schools were staffed by the local clergy.
The curriculum consisted of reading (English), writing, and some arithmetic.

By 1600, some 25 percent of males and 8 percent of females could write their names.
Even more could read simple ballads and religious texts.

Outside the family service was experienced by m ost boys and half of girls.
Boys 14-21 from wealthy families went to apprenticeship.
Girls were “farmed out” to other families in the village.