Abitur in Germany:
have obtained their leaving certificate at the age of
15/16, they can go into practical vocational training,
start work in the public service at basic or secretarial
level, or attend a Berufsfachschule (full-time
with the American high school diploma
or the British
GCSE. It is regularly awarded after ten years of
||The gymnasium (German
[ɡʏmˈnaːzi̯ʊm]; German plural: Gymnasien),
German education system, is a type of
secondary school with a strong emphasis on academic
learning, comparable with the British
grammar school system or with
prep schools in the United States. The student
attending a gymnasium is called "Gymnasiast" (German
plural: "Gymnasiasten"). In 2009/10 there were 3094
gymnasien in Germany, with c. 2,475,000
students (about 28 percent of all precollegiate
students during that period), resulting in an
average student number of 800 students per school.
Gymnasien are generally public, state-funded schools,
but a number of parochial and private gymnasien also
for vocational education
after grade 9 or 10
after grade 10
broader range intermediate pupils is for technicians
Mittlere Reife exam
after grade 10
for university education
after grade 12 or 13.
(combines the three )
There are also Förderschulen/Sonderschulen.
One in 21 pupils attends a Förderschule.
Nevertheless the Förderschulen/Sonderschulen
can also lead, in special circumstances, to a Hauptschulabschluss
of both type 10a or type 10b, the latter of which is the Realschulabschluss.
IV. University education is very low-cost or free
higher beyond a German Abitur.
1. Many of Germany's hundred or so
institutions charge little or no tuition.
2. Students must prove through examinations
that they are qualified.
are, as a rule, required to have passed the Abitur examination;
2009, however, those with a Meisterbrief
(master craftman's diploma) have also been able to apply.
wishing to attend a "university
of applied sciences" must, as a rule, have Abitur,
Fachhochschulreife or a Meisterbrief.
d. Pupils are
eligible to enter a university or university of applied sciences if they
can present additional proof that they
will be able to keep up with their fellow students (see: Begabtenprüfung
V. A special system of apprenticeship called Duale
Ausbildung allows pupils on vocational courses to do in-service
training in a company as well as at a state school.
VI Recent PISA
student assessments demonstrated serious weaknesses in German
pupils' performance. In the test of 43 countries in the year 2000,
Germany ranked 21st in reading and 20th in both mathematics
and the natural
sciences, prompting calls for reform.
In 2006, German schoolchildren improved their position compared to
previous years, being ranked (statistically) significantly above average
(rank 13) in science skills and statistically not significantly above or
below average in mathematical skills (rank 20) and reading skills (rank
VII. The PISA Examination also found big
differences in achievement between students attending different types of
According to Jan-Martin-Wiadra:
A. Conservatives prized the success of
the Gymnasium, for them the finest school form in the world – indeed, it
is by far the number one in the PISA league table.
But what they
prefer to forget is that this success came at the cost of a catastrophe in
B. Some German teachers'
representatives and a number of scientists disputed the PISA findings.
Claiming among other things that the questions have been ill-translated,
that the samples drawn in
some countries were not representative, that Germans (most of whom had
never done a multiple choice tests in their lives before) were
against by the multiple
choice questions, that the PISA-questions had no curricular validity and
that the PISA was "in fact an IQ-test", which according to them
showed that dysgenic
was taking place in
2008 statistic from Nordrhein-Westfalen
shows that 6.4 percent of all students did not earn even the Hauptschulabschluss,
however not all of them were high school dropouts,
as many of them were
children with special needs, who received special school leaving
certificates. Only 3.3 percent dropped out of school without earning any
kind of diploma.