A Concise History of Confucianism
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Subject Libraries: Religion  2/20/19
 

   
  Confucianism is a system of "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" of  Chinese philosopher Confucius (551479 BCE). He considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang (c. 16001046 BCE) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1046256 BCE).
A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty (618907). In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism. This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (9601297). The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism.

With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly soteriology,[7] the core of Confucianism is humanistic. Confucianism regards the ordinary activities of human life and especially in human relationships as a manifestation of the sacred because they are the expression of our moral nature which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven and a proper respect of the gods While Heaven ( has some characteristics that overlap the category of deity, it is primarily an impersonal absolute, like do and Brahman.

The this-worldly concern of Confucianism rests on the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics. Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices like benevolence"  and "humaneness are is the essence of the human being which manifests as compassion. It is the virtue-form of Heaven. Confucianism holds one in contempt, either passively or actively, for failure to uphold the cardinal moral values of rn and y.

Traditionally, cultures and countries in the East Asian cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. In the 20th century Confucianism's influence reduced greatly. In late 2015 many Confucian leaders[which?] formally established a national Holy Confucian Church (孔聖會/孔圣会 Kǒngshnghu) in China to unify the many Confucian congregations and civil society organisations

 

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