The Need for Truth
Russians had suffered during the czars, but Stalin's suffering was different. It was Marxian as interpreted by revolutionaries who felt truth did not exist, someone had to organize and lead people into a national planned system. Marxist/Fascists followed the true correct theory, judgment was not needed. They knew answer in advance so contradictions could be ignored as they would be removed by the flow of time. Being correct provided the confidence needed to not fear the future.The Importance of Scale
Berlin felt FDR was sure of himself,
self confidence. He could solve
WW2 related problems not knowing of
Dialectical and Historical Materialism
Grand strategy requires the directional compass of intellect and a gyroscope to provide for a balanced temperament. Carl von Clausewitz Complexity requires intellect to determine course which requires adjustment which combined with temperament determines how to adjust.
and lost an empire.
Foxes and Hedgehogs of
Negative Liberty means individuals allowed choices, allowed contradictions even cacophonies but are provided no compass. They were foxes without a compass which results in drift leading to possible anarchy. Machiavelli, Octavian Caesar, Elizabeth I
Good judgment assumes Moral equivalents across opinions with equal cost from failure. Berlin saw WW 2 Politics as a polarity with in equivalent concepts of Liberty at either end.
Accepting Past and Present incompatibles
In 1962 RFK response to a Mexican War question was taking Mexico by force was probably incorrect. It cause Deep Do
Should we give Texas back. Most
would say no.
The resulting justice would cause chaos and too
injustice would result. Contractions exist.
Learning to live with
history means living
Grand strategy aligns desires with ability.
Fairness is helped by bending toward freedom or negative liberty.
To Carl von Clausewitz it meant subordinating war to policy for what freedom comes from violence.
1. Success Requires Temperament
2. Princes as Pivots changed Western History
Machiavelli served pivotal monarchs
3. Ambition Must Be Balances with Capabilities
Napoleon confused aspirations with capabilities, failed to align end to means, lost a war and went to prison.
Lincoln align end to means, balances politics and military,
Wilson the builder failed to align
means to ends
and maintained justice but lost a League.
4. Balance Goals with Capabilities
Napoleon confused aspirations with capabilities,
align end to means, lost a war and went to prison.
FDR aligned ends to means, gave up justice and won a war
‘On Grand Strategy’ Review: The War
Against Decline and Fall