U.S. Political Eras 1788-2020
England's Political Control Ends and the South Has Some Success in Controlling Northern Business Interests.
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Elections 1788-1824 England's Political Influence Finally
Ends and the South Has Some Success
in Controlling Northern Business Interests.\
Federalists favored unity through a strong central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and the men of wealth who should run government.
Republicans under Jefferson Madison and Monroe strongly opposed Alexander Hamilton's Federalist agenda. They stressed being more of a Republic where the individual is sovereign as opposed to democracy where the sovereign is the group, the majority.
Executive privilege was used by G.W. to keep
Jay Treaty documents
from Congress. Other Presidents would claim the right, courts would
sometimes have to decide legality. Think NSA data
State's Rights and Democracy vs. Republican, the Fight Begins
When the Democratic-Republican Party of the Jefferson became factionalized in the 1820's, Andrew Jackson's supporters began to form the modern Democratic Party. It hoped to take political power from the established elites to ordinary voters. It supported the predominance of the Presidency over the other branches of the U.S. Federal government. They continued the Bank War by opposing a bank charter renewal of Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United State. Democrats also opposed Whig sponsored modernizing programs which they felt would helped industry at the expense of the taxpayer. These battles continue today! Democrats fought Adams and Anti-Jacksonian factions which soon emerged as the Whig party. They were led by Henry Clay who advocated the primacy of Congress over the Executive Branch. They opposed economic protectionism for Northeastern industry.
Indian Removal Act of 1830 forced Indians
2) 1933 Compromise Tariff decreased the North-South fight over protectionism.
3) 1838 Mormon War ended with roughly 20,000 Mormons relocated. Think Middle East refugee problem.
4) A failed 1842 J. Taylor Impeachment attempt occurred because he had used his Presidential veto to over ride Northeast bank and tariff issues. Previous Presidential vetoes had been on Constitutional grounds not because the President did not like the bill.. It would be the first of a few politically motivated impeachment attempts.
Think the Obama impeachment poll and liberal radio attacks on Trump.
5) The Mexican War was settled with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It increased the U.S. landmass by a third. Slave Power accusations were common. The Oregon Treaty acquired much of the Northwest territory and what would be six states. England got British Columbia.
6) The Compromise of 1850 postponed Civil War again and the 1864 Kansas Nebraska Act increased tensions.
Think postponing government budget problems.
Elections 1856-1896 Civil War Ends, Northeast Takes Control, The Gilded Age is Built on the Backs of the Poor, Especially Women, Immigrants, and Blacks The civil War was followed by massive industrialization centered on rail roads, canals and steamships. Massive wealth was created. Farm mechanism lowered the cost of food and this coupled with science made for a somewhat more prosperous middle class. Immigrants suffered.
Progressives and Populists
Finally End to the
Gilded Age But
Business Power Would Return
After WW I. The 1896
realigning election resulted in a Republican Party forged conservative coalition.
It consisted of businessmen, professionals, skilled factory workers, and
prosperous farmers. There would be
much opposition resulting in two unsettled decades.
Panic of 1857 was caused by a low gold-backed money supply
resulting from high consumption of European goods. Overbuilding by competing railroads and rampant Western land
speculation caused speculative financial problems. Think
2) The Civil War was more than a fight to eliminate slavery.
3) Enforcement Acts of 1870-71 were designed to protect Indians and blacks from the Ku Klux Klan. It failed.
4) The Panic of 1873 was caused by a low money supply caused by the Coinage Act of 1873. Workers blamed cheap foreign labor. It was called the Long Depression until the 1930's when the Great Depression caused more hardship. It would not be the last time immigrants were blamed for worker problems. Think Trump's Wall.
5) The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 added merit to the government hiring process. Thus began the replacement of the spoils system in the federal hiring equation.
6) The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 lasted until 1942. The Scott Act of 1888 expanded the restrictions on Chinese immigration. Think current Muslim Immigration issues.
7) The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began an attempt to regulate business trusts and decrease their use of monopoly power.
8) The McKinley Tariff of 1890 set a record for high rates. Profits increased as did the price of consumers goods.
9) Panic of 1893 resulted in a severe depression. Reluctantly J.P. Morgan bailed out the gold standard with $60,000,000. The 1894 Wilson–Gorman Tariff lowered tariffs slightly & created a 2% income tax on high over $4,000 ($88,100 in 2010 dollars) income. The 1895 Supreme Court. declared it unconstitutional.
was desired by colonial empire and business interests.
Business also had pushed for the 1897
Dingley Tariff Act which
at the expense of consumers who paid higher tariff induced prices. The
Gold Standard protected savers
from inflation but its inflexible money supply caused hard
Party Control Flip Flops
Like a Yoyo but Progress Is Being Made.
Republicans were penalized by outrage caused during the summer of 1932 because of Veteran Bonus Army deaths. It combined with the of Hoover's domestic policies and change was demanded. A similar major change happened with Reagonomics, See Liberal Richard Wolff's Video On Reaganomics
Democrats promoted American Liberalism. It anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, African Americans). White Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban political machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups were also courted.
US Economic Normality 1945-2015 &
World Changed and Good Jobs Disappeared
Telecommunications Act of 1996
allowed multi station company ownership and national
networks developed. As of 2011, Clear Channel Communications (now iHeartMedia) owned over 800 US radio stations and Rush Limbaugh wealth
began an 8 years clime to $400 million . The
Citizens United v. FEC allowed unregulated Together they ended
Journalism Political Era which began with the
Washington Presidency. It had been slowed with the
New York Times Ochs Era which changed political reporting
with a slogan
The News That's Fit To Print".
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 allowed multi station company ownership and national networks developed. As of 2011, Clear Channel Communications (now iHeartMedia) owned over 800 US radio stations and Rush Limbaugh wealth began an 8 years clime to $400 million .
Citizens United v. FEC allowed unregulated
Together they ended Yellow Journalism Political Era which began with the Washington Presidency. It had been slowed with the New York Times Ochs Era which changed political reporting with a slogan "All The News That's Fit To Print".
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
1) For the first time U.S. leaders used massive debt to solve a major
non-military problem (SS and
Like military debt, this new type of debt would be negated by economic growth
and inflation which allowed easy refinancing with little paid back (retired).
3) President Eisenhower pulled out of South Korean and warned of a Military Industrial Complex.
4) Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the worst ever Cold War nuclear crises, was properly managed.
5) Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
6) Voting Rights Act of 1965 assured minority registration and voting ending a 100 year government stalemate.
7) Vietnam War and Watergate scandal
8) Camp David Accords of 1978 was the high point of recent Middle East peace efforts.
9) Tax Act of 1980 began a trend of cutting everyone's income taxes.
10) Too Big to Fail policy rescued Continental Illinois Bank and signaled the beginning of financial industry problems.
11) Coalition of the First Gulf War in1990 repelled invasion of Kuwai
13) Terrorism strikes on 9/11caused fear that subsides a little, then returns before the 2016 presidential election.
14) Great Recession ended but slow nominal growth means real national debt will drop slowly as compared to WW2 debt.
2000 - 2020 Elections Political Polarity Increase
Election of 2000
was one of the most contentious in history
as it marked
the fourth time the winner failed to win a plurality.
Florida recount required Supreme Court intervention which followed
party lines. The
Green Party adversely affected Democratic
George W. Bush reacted to
September 9/11 attacks with a
War on Terror,
War in Afghanistan and the
His major tool was the USA PATRIOT Act which established Department of Homeland Security. He
tax cuts 2)
No Child Left Behind
3) Medicare Part D but vetoed State Children's Health
Insurance Program legislation 4)
government activities to
"And Now the Rest of the Story"
1) 2001 Bush Named War on Terrorism begins
2) 2011 Don't Ask, Don't Tell battle conducted on talk radio was ended..
2000 Bush v. Gore: installed their preferred partisan presidency stating it should not be cited as precedent.
2012 NFIB v. Sebelius: blew a giant hole in the ObamaCare Medicaid expansion stopping Congress coerced states expansion
2013 Shelby County v. Holder: stop state preclearance by federal government gutting the Voting Rights Act did not cite the Constitution.
|Third Party Cost: Florida Gore lost by 2,912,790 - 2,912,253 = 537 Green 97,488 – (Buchanin 17,484 + Libertarian 16,415 = 33,899) = 63.589 If < 1% had voted fore Gore we might have avoided War on Terror.|
Election of 2008
saw leading Democrat
Hillary Clinton lose when the campaign switched focus
The War On Terror to economic concerns. This
was the first election in which 1) neither major candidate was born in
contiguous U.S, (Obama/ Hawaii and McCain/Panama military
base) 2) a woman presidential candidate ran in every
primary/caucus and 3)
was the first female Republican VP candidate.
Geraldine Ferraro was first
major party's presidential candidate.
Election of 2012 saw Mormon Mitt Romney lose by four points.
Election, 2012 Obama defeated Romney, winning a majority of both the popular vote and the Electoral College. Obama won 51.1% of the popular vote compared to Romney's 47.2%
2010 Barack Obama's Affordable Care Act finally fulfilled Democratic efforts for a national health insurance program that had begun with Harry Truman. Major federal health care involvement had began during WW 2 when employer provided health insurance was exempted from federal income tax. His to-date successfully completion of governmental attempts to negate effects of The Great Recession will be balanced against possible successes of the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Election of 2016
Clinton received over 2.8 million more votes nationwide, a margin of 2.1%, but
won 30 states many with
award of electoral college votes by appealing to
negative political force's spreading around the liberal
democratic world. Trump took 306 electors, or 57% of the 538 available.
intelligence community review
interfered with the campaign
||In his first two years Trump appointed two new Supreme Court justices. banned US travel from Muslim-majority countries, signed a tax cut legislation which also rescinded the individual insurance mandate provision of the Affordable Care Act, opened the Arctic Refuge for oil drilling, partial repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act and pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy and trade, withdrawing U.S. from the TPP trade negotiations, renegotiated NAFTA, withdrew from the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He also recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, and imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China.|
20th Century Summary
The Good, The Bad, The Ugly
1. Health Problems Solved
1902 Scarlet Fever deaths peaked at close to 5,000 and then slowly dropped thanks to penicillin.
1905 Last Yellow Fever epidemic killed 20 in US as misquote control eliminated cause. 1936 vaccine ended disease.
1916 Measles 12,000 mostly children died. Vaccine finally eliminated most cases by early 1980's.
1918 Spanish Flu 500,000 died in US. This could have been the cause of the post WW 1 recession.
1921 Diphtheria 206,000 cases, 15,520 deaths, mostly children died.
1953 Polio 57,628 cases with 21,000 paralyzed Vaccine followed and Polio is now about gone.
1957-58 Asian Flu 70,000 died in US.
1968-69 Hong Kong Flu 34,000 died in US.
1985-95+ AIDS killed ten to twenty thousand per year in 1970's. Annual deaths peaked at 41,699 in mid 1990's
and then they quickly dropped due to super drug development and availability. Total US deaths were 658,507.
By the 1960's Measles, Mumps, Rubella and a 1995 2. Long-lasting Great Depression Legislation
TVA employed people to build dams, controlled floods, improved irrigation and eventually generated electricity.
Emergency Banking Act establish the first federal bank regulations and set up SEC to police Wall Street. Social Security Act created Old-Age pensions, unemployment insurance and disability Insurance. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set maximum hours and minimum wages. It also prohibited Discriminatory Employment related to federal employment.
3. Post WW II Activity Included Reorganization of Israel resulted in a strong pro-American Middle East democracy.
Marshall Plan prevented a repeat of the post WW I problems that led to WW II. Germany, Japan and England eventually prospered.
NATO officially ended Monroe Doctrine isolationism.
Federal Aid Highway Act created interstate highway system for national defense purposes and allowed the development of suburbia.
4. A return to Progressivism Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 provided benefits for poor people, education, unemployed and the elderly.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 finally began the process of moving toward minority equality. It continued with the Voting Rights Act of 1965 designed to assured minority registration and voting and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which banned housing discrimination. Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicare and Medicaid.
Environmental Protection Agency was created by presidential executive order. It along with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 increased federal regulatory authority. 26th Amendment of 1971 lowered voting age to18 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990...
5. Taxes dropped benefits increased Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 cut most taxes. Tax Reform Act of 1986 lowered taxes on wealthy. Tax Cuts of 2001 lowered rates for many. 2003 tax cut was the first in a time of high war. 2003 Medicare Part D increase drug benefits. 2010 PPACA resulted in more people being insured. Chicken Pox vaccines made childhood safer and more enjoyable as did seat belts, infant safety seats, bicycle safety helmets, and 1962 began the era of government sponsored child protective services.
1. Interned American Citizens in 1942 consisted of 150,000 mostly Japanese men, women and children.
2. Cuban Missile Crisis continued a long Cold War.
3 Bailouts began 1975 New York City $1.3b paid back +interest 1979 Chrysler Motors $1.5b paid back +interest 1982 Oklahoma-based Penn Square Bank $65m 1984 Continental Illinois Bank bailout $14b 1980's Savings and Loan $124.6b 
2009-10 Great Recession TARP $24b, Detroit $16b
4. Less Regulation Causes Trouble Financial deregulation began in early 1970's and culminated with Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act of 1999 which repealed the Glass–Steagall Act enacted after the Great Depression. Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 minimized regulation of financial derivatives
5. War on Terror1 was named by George Bush II and it finally stuck after six months of constant marketing. Attacks against the U.S. had been going on for many years and while an attack on American soil was terrible, putting this conflict of previous wars catastrophes, calling it a war is questionable
U.S. Cost of War
1. Nineteen-month World War 1 killed 116,516 from all causes with 204,002 wounded in action. The resulting peace treaty severely penalized Germany and divided the Ottoman Empire among the winners. These winners continued their 19th Century Western Colonialism, which planted the seeds for Arab Unrest.
2. Four year World War 2 killed 405,399 from all causes with 670,660 wounded in action. Losers were not punished. Russian Bear having suffered 26.6 military and civilian deaths used their newly occupied eastern European territory to provide a protective buffer.
3. Three year Korean War killed 36,574 with 103,284 wounded in action. South Korea remained free. Japan felt safe and used a small defense budget to build industrial capital and rejoined the developed world. 43. The very long Vietnam War2 killed 58,220 with over 153,303 wounded with few important positive results.
As of 12/31/14 Afghanistan War killed 2,312 with 20,026 wounded with few important positive results. As of 5/29/12 Iraq War killed 4,425 with 32,223 wounded with few important positive results.
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to Henry Kissinger's biographer Walter Isaacson, President Johnson's reason
for U.S. involvement in Vietnam was the Domino Theory. It stated that Nation
A falling to Communism would make it easier for Communism to gain control of
Nation B and then Nation C. This idea was already being questioned when
Nixon took offices. Both Henry and Nixon did not believe in the Domino
Theory. Still it was six years before we were forced out of Vietnam. Henry's
reason for taking so long and not withdrawing in the promised six months was
the importance of maintaining U.S. foreign policy creditability. No one
asked the correct question. Such statements that "something will hurt the
U.S." should be followed by questions pertaining to how much harm will be
done, in relation to what and at what cost? About half of the U.S.
causalities occurred during the Nixon-Kissinger watch even though both men
entered office thinking the Vietnam War was not winnable.
1 The idea that Muslims Extremism is behind all military confrontations in the Middle East and Africa reminds me of the Cold War. Then, regime change in Egypt and Syria plus Para military confrontations in Central and South American were all said to be inspired by Communist. Looking back neither Egypt nor Syria became Communistic and few of these conflicts resulted in communist governments. Oligarch looking to control these and other lesser-developed countries need money, the USSR would contribute to one side, and the U.S. would contribute to the other side. Today, conservative Muslims have the money to help local Oligarchs wanting to control resources and the West fights to keep their current resource share.
2According to Henry Kissinger's biographer Walter Isaacson, President Johnson's reason for U.S. involvement in Vietnam was the Domino Theory. It stated that Nation A falling to Communism would make it easier for Communism to gain control of Nation B and then Nation C. This idea was already being questioned when Nixon took offices. Both Henry and Nixon did not believe in the Domino Theory. Still it was six years before we were forced out of Vietnam. Henry's reason for taking so long and not withdrawing in the promised six months was the importance of maintaining U.S. foreign policy creditability. No one asked the correct question. Such statements that "something will hurt the U.S." should be followed by questions pertaining to how much harm will be done, in relation to what and at what cost? About half of the U.S. causalities occurred during the Nixon-Kissinger watch even though both men entered office thinking the Vietnam War was not winnable.