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Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims translates as a noun meaning "struggle". It is commonly misunderstood as "Holy War"; Jihad means "to struggle in the way of Allah". A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status. In Twelve Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.
There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad: an inner spiritual struggle and an outer physical struggle. The "greater jihad" is the inner struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. This non-violent meaning is stressed by both Muslim and non-Muslim authors. The "lesser jihad" is the physical struggle against the enemies of Islam. This physical struggle can take a violent form or a non-violent form. The proponents of the violent form translate jihad as "holy war" although some Islamic studies scholars disagree. T
According to the BBC, a third meaning of jihad is the
struggle to build a good society.
In a commentary of the Hadith
Sahih Muslim, entitled al-Minhaj, the
medieval Islamic scholar
Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi stated that "one of the
collective duties of the community as a whole (fard kifaya)
is to lodge a valid protest, to solve problems of religion,
to have knowledge of Divine Law, to command what is right
and forbid wrong conduct".
The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Quran. This encourages the use of Jihad against non-Muslims. The Quran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” Jihad in the Quran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Quranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries.
Ahmadiyya Islam, jihad is primarily one's personal inner
struggle and should not be used violently for political
motives. Violence is the last option only to be used to
protect religion and one's own life in extreme situations of
Quranists do not believe that the word jihad means holy
war. They believe it means to struggle, or to strive. They
believe it can incorporate both military and non-military
aspects. When it refers to the military aspect, it is
understood primarily as defensive warfare.
Jihad has been classified either as al-jihād al-akbar (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's ego or self (nafs), or al-jihād al-asghar (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite view of jihad as well).
Gibril Haddad has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", Jihad al-akbar. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded hadith, in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of the superiority of internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Quran and other writings.
In contrast, the Hanbali scholar Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya did believe that "internal Jihad" is important but he suggests those hadith as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword". Contemporary Islamic scholar Abdullah Yusuf Azzam has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."
Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of jihad
fi sabilillah (struggle in the cause of God):
Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad,
the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy
war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.
The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two parts: the "Greater Jihad" and the "Lesser Jihad". Muhammad put the emphasis on the "Greater Jihad" by saying, "Holy is the warrior who is at war with himself". In this sense external wars and strife are seen as but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad", which can only be fought and won within. There is no salvation for man without his own efforts being added to the work of self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the Holy Grail which comes closest to the Sufic ideal, for to the Sufis, perfection is the Grail, and the Holy Grail is for those who, after they become perfect by giving all they have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch, who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God" (Genesis:5:24). Here the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".
The Roman Catholic Church had its own version of Jihad
beginning with in 1134 with the
Inquisition. It was a series of
Church bodies charged with suppressing
around 1184 including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184-1230s) and later
the Papal Inquisition (1230s). The
Medieval Inquisition was established in response to large popular movements
throughout Europe considered
Christianity, in particular
Waldensians in southern France and northern Italy. These were the first
inquisition movements of many that would follow.
The Jihad like activity continued in 1481 with the Spanish Inquisition which began when the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition established by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition.
The Reformation gave them a more important fight (jihad)
against Martin Luther and in 1618 the end of the Jihad like activity began with
The Thirty Years War.
a series of wars fought in
Central Europe involving most of
one of the longest and
most destructive conflicts in
European history. Conflict origins and participant goals were complex.
Originally it was fought as
religious war between
Catholics of the
Holy Roman Empire. Disputes over internal politics and the
balance of power within the Empire played a significant role.
Over the next three centuries
Feudalism was replaced by capitalism. European governments
stabilized and nationalism replaced religion as the cause of the military
activity fostered by the military industrial complex.
Early in the 20th Century British companies got control of Iranian oil. In 1951 the democratic elected a leaders of Iran got their oil back with nationalization. U.S. President Truman refused to help British Prime Minister Churchill overthrow Iran’s democratically government but Ike agreed to help because he felt it was in the interest of national security. A 1953 Iranian coup resulted and a pro-western Shaw who would lead a decadent western life style took over and cheap oil returned to a westward flow for another 20 years.
The 1979 Iranian Revolution ended the West's control of th Iranian oil business and the latest Jihad began.