Career Guidance for Graduates

See Education and Income       Updated 1/20/18         Please link to and 



Preface     Executive Summary     Career Tips     Hard and Soft Skills Center     Success Triangle

Common Sense Interview Stuff     More Career Stuff   The Ladders    Understanding Salaries   

Fab Five of Student Jobs     Student Personal Finance    Matching Career With Personality

Success Indicator     Road to Success     Considering Trade School    
Emotional Intelligence

My Next Move helps find a career path   Mark Cuban Q&A at Oxford University 65 min vide

 The Importance of Grades     edited by Walter Antoniotti 

Executive Summary
1) Hard and Soft Skills facilitate Career Success. 
    "The capacity to learn is a gift, the ability to learn
     is a skill and the willing to learn is a choice
Skills and Grades Two B's or an A and a C Which is better?
Technical Skill to Enhance the Liberal Arts

2) What you study/do determines skill levels associated with success.
3) College Isn't A Guarantee To The Middle Class. See chart 1.

4) Do what you like because our "Flat World" means a lot of competition
   which means more effort is needed to be successful. 

5) Most jobs are in health care, education, STEM areas and retail sales/service.

6) Studies show most careers can be enhanced by digital knowledge. Start by
  enhancing your
Geekability by adding one useable software or Apps task per
  month to be done with your computer and phone.

Substantial efforts toward  Improving SAT testing ability
may not be successful
   a) Data indicates comprehensive test coaching has only a small effect on scores.
   b) Anxiety they cause can be a serious problem.

Choosing a College and Major by attending a college you are not academically
     prepared for hinders success.

See SAT Coaching Found to Boost Scores--Barely

Free testing help at Test Prep Internet Library

8) Going to a school where you are near the top academically usually a good
    idea for three reasons. Grants will be higher, time will be available to
   enhance non-academic soft skills and professors favor their best students.

9) Traditional and social networking and good mentoring are still very important for success. 

10) Data that college is not a good investment has many even well off students
   attending local Community College though college loans were up 5% in 2015.

Fareed Zakaria defense of a liberal education is reasonable but remember that very strong academic ability and other outstanding traits are required to earn a "reasonable" academic degree and economic return. The majority of liberal majors do not have these abilities and even if they did, there are few good paying jobs. So studying art or music or psychology is fine but when you can expect a low salary. 

Career Tips

Why Internships Are More Important Than Ever    Internship Help    4 Quick Rules for Life

    7 Habits of Highly Effective People       Part 2I

Hard and Soft Skill Center

Hard skills include the specific knowledge and abilities required for a job. They are  acquired through formal education and training programs, including college, apprenticeships, short-term training classes, online courses, certification programs, as well as by on-the-job training. Examples of hard skills include computer programming, web design, typing, accounting, finance, writing, mathematics, legal and other quantifiable skills that are included in the requirements for a job.

Bill Gates writes often about the importance of measurement when pursuing goals. Skills are easier to measure than behaviors. Behaviors can be hard to define, and often manifest in the things you don’t do.  Sometimes chase and reward the wrong traits. Google learned this when it eventually devalued SAT scores for job applicants, realizing it had little predictive signal of a hire’s subsequent career success.
For more examples see Skills vs. Behavior

Soft Skills: Success May Depend on Them

See 10 Hard to Learn Skills are Necessary for Success! 20 min video

10 Promotion Skills

Source: Harvard Business Review

Noncognitive skills like cognitive skills improving labor-market outcomes. These non-cognitive skills (called soft skills, social, behavioral skills) include perseverance, conscientiousness, and self-control, social skills and leadership . Evidence suggests that the labor-market payoffs to non-cognitive skills have been increasing over time and the payoffs are particularly strong for individuals who possess both cognitive and Noncognitive skills. Seven Facts on Noncognitive Skills from Education to the Labor Market Editor's Note: Much is to be gained by spending a lot of time improving what you do well and nurturing these soft skills. Example work hard and your major and if being in the school senate means slightly lower grades in secondary subjects, so be it. See   Which is better, 2 B's or an A and a C?

The Great Recession Drastically Changed the Skills Employers Want 10/4/17

 "the skill requirements we analyze were]  — education, experience, analytical aptitude, and computer skills — have been found to complement new technologies. (We identify analytical requirements by the presence of keywords like “research,” “decision,” and “solving.”)"

"... in a hard-hit metro area [employment ads] are about 5 percentage points (16%) more likely to contain education and experience requirements and about 2–3 percentage points (12%) more likely to include requirements for analytical and computer skills." from HBR

Enhancing Skills

Avoiding Financial Mistakes

Effective Studying is comprehensive help for those
wanting to enhance a skill

Soft Skills May Determine Success 

Soft Skills Needed for Success require practice


John Wooden Success Triangle  Larger Triangle


Common Sense Interview Stuff
See for more job hunter help



More Career Stuff

Ikigai from Wiki



Matching Career With Personality   The Ladders leads to the top.

Ways to stand out in a Job Hunt     Career Plan Video is quick

Study Hacks Blog Decoding Patterns of Success   Career Information  "... helps students and people seeking a career change."  

 Not All Majors Are Created Equal   Choosing a College, Major   Exam Strategies +  

Specialty Suggestions
Scholarships, Grants, Loans and other Financial Aid 
Maximizing Merit Money
Choosing a Major 
Not All College Majors Are Created Equal

Maximizing the College Experience
Beginners Guide to Repaying Student Loans
Two B's or an A and a C, Which is Better
The Myth of the Well- Rounded Student
Success Charts
Is Education Signaling or Skill Building?
Goal Setting  2.56 video


Useful Sites from Broward Education

 Career Resources    Match Careers to Majors  Self Assessment 

More Good Stuff

25% of students from households earning $100,000 or more now attend community colleges, up from 12% five years ago.

Mark Cuban has 5 helpful hints   9 Critical Skills that take a little practice.

If Return on Investment is Important

Spending Extra Time to Graduate Cost Lots from
D. D. Gabriel Washington Post

Low-cost Sites    Udemy, Coursera,     edX    Skillshare,"

Many years ago my fourteen year-old nephews was not interested in academics and wanted to attend a neighboring high school with a carpentry program.  It would be a new, strange school. At fourteen! Four years of getting up early and getting a ride from his father to grandmother's house where he waited for the school bus. After school he walked home from grandma's. No one told him from what to do; he just didn't like academics and decided on a vocational education. Now a successful small contractor, his biggest problem is convincing his wife they don't need a new Volvo every two years. With state testing this would be much more difficult.  by walter


Understanding Salaries


The Success Indicator






The Road to Success





Matching Career With Personality


Considering Trade School



The Real Value of Emotional Intelligence




1. Communication is everything

If you learn how to effectively command a room, think on your feet, articulate yourself exceptionally and present your ideas in a way which others can digest, understand and feel inspired by, you will be a force to be reckoned with. If you do not, you may very well find yourself frequently ‘out-shone' by people who have mastered this skill.

2. Listen, before you speak

It is often in our nature to talk out of turn or readily project our opinions onto others. However, it is an extremely valuable and necessary skill to develop a habit of pro-active listening. Make a point of being an active listener, consider and digest information before you respond and treat conversations as a constantly evolving learning practice because, that is exactly what they are.

3. Your success is entirely up to you

In your twenties, you will quickly learn that no one owes you anything. Your family, friends and colleagues will look out for you and support you, but ultimately it is up to you now to pave your own way. The level of reward you experience directly correlates to the level of effort and work you invest. Low effort = low reward and vice versa.

4. On that note, the path to success is not short

Don't assume your career path will be an overnight success story. When it comes to success, both professionally and personally, you will likely endure a number of learning curves before you hit your stride. As such, your habits, work ethic, mindset and gumption truly matter. View your goals as a long-term, evolving destination and commit yourself to the individual, daily tasks and practices which will nudge you closer to that destination. Success is a marathon, not a sprint and remember that there are no small plans.

5. Being present takes a conscious effort

Try to remember the importance of grounding yourself in the present moment when you can. Take the time to examine your mindset, meditate, reflect or whatever you need to do to quiet the rest of the noise in your mind and focus on the present, entirely. This takes a conscious effort, but is continuously important in a world where we are constantly plugged in and self absorbed.

6. Never think you have it all figured out, because you don't

If you ever think you know all there is to know about something, you're wrong. In order to grow, adapt to changing environments/demands and stay ahead of the rest of the group, you have to always be hungry for new information. You have to always be learning. Read, ask questions, consider other answers, debate topics, admit when you're wrong and surround yourself with people who are equally passionate and curious, as they will help propel you forward. Your University degree won't define you, your desire to learn and continue learning will. Remember this or you could be left behind.

Relationships with close friends may change during your 20s.

7. The dynamics of your friendships will change

As we get older, friendships become a little less convenient. Most of us work or study full-time, move around, develop important daily demands and shift into different stages of our lives. During this time, the company we keep is the company we make a conscious effort to keep. Don't view this as a negative change, but instead learn to invest in the people who invest in you. Understand the difference between a friend who is fun to grab a drink with occasionally, and someone who you would call if you were in trouble.

8. Kindness matters

No matter what, remind yourself to be kind. Try to be self-aware enough to check yourself and admit the moments when you're being a jerk. When you have the opportunity to improve someone else's day, even in the smallest way, you should act upon it. Maintain your manners, hold the door open, smile readily and put basic kindness into practice whenever you can. The more positive energy you put out into the world, the more you can expect to get back.

9. Don't take people for granted

At the end of the day, the people we love are the reason all the hard, messy stuff we work through is so worth it. Relationships and connection are everything. Don't ever take this for granted. Love, be loved and be eternally, openly grateful for the connections you keep.

10. You have to take responsibility

It is so easy to conjure up excuses for the mistakes or bad judgments we make, but ultimately, we have to take responsibility for ourselves. If you screw up, take ownership of it. That, in itself, is admirable (although not easy). The more you commit yourself to the ownership of your actions and choices, the more likely you are to prioritize them and make careful, calculated decisions.

11. Stop saying "later"

Seriously, procrastination is a quiet killer. Do you really want to start each day with something hanging over your head from the previous day? The time is now, act accordingly.

12. Stay true to what moves you

There is no sense working a job which makes you too tired to go home and live the life you are working to live. You shouldn't spend your hours counting down the hours on a clock in an office, just to feel that there aren't enough hours remaining for everything else. We have to be practical, yes, but that shouldn't mean sacrificing personal fulfillment. If you stay true to what move and excites you, you should have the motivation to become a master of your craft and live a life which grants you stability as well as passion and internal reward.

13. Don't obsess over the past

Don't cheat on the present by remaining stuck on the past. Keep moving forward, always.

Take time to exercise and focus on your health. Poodar Chu/Unsplash

14. Make your health a priority

Take care of yourself, body and soul. Eat well (food is fuel, seriously), laugh often, sweat every day, get enough sleep, limit harmful habits, give yourself a day off when you need it and treat your body as the critical vessel that it is.

15. Look up

Get your head out of your phone, your laptop and away from the TV. We live in a digital age, which means we really need to work to ensure it doesn't consume all of our attention. When you're with someone, focus on them and keep the phone out of sight. When you have a free night, consider reading instead of a Netflix binge. If you need to talk to someone, consider meeting up with them instead of messaging them via text or email. Give yourself an hour of screen-free time before bed. These are little things we can do to un-plug ourselves from the technology we so firmly attach ourselves to.

16. Dating culture exists, but you decide what you accept

When it comes to dating, especially in your twenties, it's easy to feel like you are swimming an upstream battle. While we are often painfully aware of the dating cultures which exist and feel their effect, we decide whether or not we accept them as a rule to which we need to abide. If you aren't comfortable with a situation, you can remove yourself from it. Don't abandon your values and intentions to suit someone else's. You can't expect to find what (or whom) you want if you're constantly betraying your own desires, after all. Always remain open, remain confident and remain honest with yourself and your heart.

17. Learn to forgive

There is no sense in continuously investing precious energy into malicious emotions and engagements. Of course, we will find ourselves angry or hurt at times and we have the right to feel the levity of those emotions when they come, but it is absolutely crucial to learn how to acknowledge those feelings and then let them go. Forgive yourself, forgive others, understand when someone or something is introducing negative energy into your life and forgive that too, but let it go as you do. Leave it and your anger behind you. Unburden yourself so you can remain open to alternative experiences as you move forward. If you don't, you will define your future based on your inability to forgive and forget the wrong-doings of the past.

18. Your time is valuable

If you ask me, time is our most precious commodity. We are a busy breed, generally speaking, so the time we invest is meaningful and holds a distinct purpose and intention. Value your time and engage with people who value and respect your time, not those who waste it or take it for granted.

19. Travel when you can

"We travel because we need to, because distance and difference are the tonic to creativity. When we get home, home is still the same, but something in our minds has changed and that changes everything."

20. Let yourself be scared, but also be organized

The best things in life are often the ones that scare you the most. When we are in our twenties, we have to give ourselves the freedom to take risks, some of which will scare the living crap out of us. That fear, those nerves, those are okay. They are human. But, while we should embrace the madness that comes with transitioning into adulthood and sorting out our passions and future, we must maintain a method to the madness, too. To do this, make a habit of setting your intentions and having mental check-in's with yourself. Write your to-do lists in the morning, schedule your time, stay on track to the big picture on a daily basis but grant yourself permission to take a few leaps of faith, risks or breaths where necessary. We can't control everything, we can only be well prepared.

Read the original article on Quora. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and get insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on TwitterFacebook, and Google+. Copyright 2018. Follow Quora on Twitter.

Read the original article on Quora. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and get insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on TwitterFacebook, and Google+. Copyright 2018. Follow Quora on Twitter.

Showing up late to work


"Punctuality is critical," Rosalinda Oropeza Randall, an etiquette and civility expert and the author of "Don't Burp in the Boardroom," tells Business Insider.

"The professional thing to do is to arrive on time, ready to do what is expected. It's not like they just sprung this job on you," she says.

Rolling in 10 minutes late to every meeting

Daniel Goodman / Business Insider

Similarly, showing up late to meetings shows that you neither respect your coworkers — who showed up on time, by the way — nor the meeting organizer, Vicky Oliver, author of "301 Smart Answers to Tough Interview Questions" and "Bad Bosses, Crazy Coworkers & Other Office Idiots," tells Business Insider.

"Keeping people waiting can be construed as inconsiderate, rude, or arrogant," Randall says.

Being negative all the time


Repeatedly responding to suggestions with a pessimistic or contrary attitude can be construed as being uncooperative, Randall says. Phrases like "That won't work," "That sounds too hard," or, "I wouldn't know how to start," should be avoided.

Similarly, complaining too much puts you in a bad light.

"While there may be times when everyone feels the desire to complain about the boss, a coworker, or a task, voicing it will only make you look unprofessional," Randall says. "It's even worse if you complain every day, all day, from the moment you walk into work. Before long, people will go out of their way to avoid you."

"There's nothing as energy-draining as having to deal with a pessimistic coworker," Rosemary Haefner, chief human-resources officer for CareerBuilder, tells Business Insider. "Things do go wrong, but even when they do, focus your energy towards what you've learned from a bad situation."

She points to a recent CareerBuilder survey, which shows that a majority of employers — 62% — say they are less likely to promote employees who have a negative or pessimistic attitude.

Talking about polarizing issues unrelated to work

REUTERS/Joshua Roberts

"Before you pull up your soapbox, you should be aware that in most cases, free speech in the workplace is limited or non-existent when it comes to controversial movements or topics," Randall says.

As an employee expressing yourself at work, it turns out you have fewer protections than you'd think — and if your boss doesn't like what they hear, you could get fired for it.

Unless you signed some sort of contract that says otherwise, it's likely you're an at-will employee. This means that your job can be terminated without having to establish just cause.

There are labor laws that exist in the US to protect people against adverse employment actions due to discrimination. So if your boss fires you, for example, simply because you're a woman, that's wrongful termination, and you could sue them for that.

But very few laws exist that truly protect private sector employees against getting fired for expressing their political affiliation. There are a handful of states like New York and California with laws offering protections for political affiliation, but even those are fairly limited.

Soliciting signatures, volunteers, or donations

Daniel Goodman / Business Insider

"Before you go cubicle to cubicle enlightening your coworkers about your cause, read the company policies and procedures manual. Most companies discourage or forbid promoting personal causes, especially on company time because it's deemed disruptive," Randall says.

Spouting off on social media

Flickr/Tom Britt

Your company may have specific policy outlining how you may use social media, so it's always a good idea to get acquainted with your employee handbook.

But generally, many employers take a negative view when you use social media to complain about your boss, coworkers, or clients, share company secrets, represent the company in a negative way, or make offensive comments.

Being on Facebook all the time


Even if you're not writing anything offensive, being on Facebook every time your boss walks by looks really bad, Oliver says. Unless it's work-related, many companies frown on using social media during work time, and especially using work equipment.

Playing '20 Questions' on every new assignment

Seth Sawyers/flickr

There may be no stupid questions, Oliver says, but there are certainly annoying questions. These are the kinds of questions that prove you really don't want to do the assignment or illustrate you only want to hear yourself talk.

"When you receive a new assignment, gather your questions, and pose them in an organized way," Oliver suggests. "Never just spout out question after question off the cuff."

Practicing poor hygiene and grooming

Skirt PR/flickr

You want to look like you take your job seriously when you walk into work, and your hygiene and appearance play a role in that.

"Poor hygiene and sloppy clothes scream, 'I don't care!' and are a surefire way to put off those around you," Randall says.

Your boss may wonder whether your attitude about how you present yourself extends to your work, she explains, and you may be passed over for a promotion, overlooked when it's time to meet with a client or represent the company at a conference, and not invited to social gatherings.

Being a slob

Wikimedia Commons

"Whether you're at your desk or in the break room, being known as the office slob is never a compliment," says Randall.

When you clog the office kitchen sink and leave your garbage around, who exactly are you expecting to clean up after you?

"Leaving your mess behind shows lack of responsibility or consideration, arrogance, and immaturity," Randall says.

Similarly, your workspace can be a reflection of you, she says.

"If you're like me, who works well in a semi-messy environment, it can be inhibiting to be clutter-free. But with open cubicles or workspaces, the professional thing to do is to make some compromises," Randall says. "It would be disrespectful and inconsiderate to expect your coworkers to deal with your mess."

According to Haefner, employees who don't clean up after themselves can hurt their chances for a promotion in the eyes of 36% of employers.

Calling in sick when you aren't

Lindsey Turner/flickr

"Remember the adage that half of life is showing up," Oliver says.

You won't prove you deserve the promotion if you call in sick every few weeks.

Selling stuff

Flickr / Brad Owens

It seems like almost every office has one or two people who sell cookies for their kids. But Randall says that some companies prohibit soliciting at work because it takes up work time and places people in an awkward position. Breaking the rules could be grounds for firing.

Being distracted during meetings


"There is a reason why texting is illegal while driving: It's impossible to concentrate fully on two things simultaneously," Oliver says.

Texting, surfing the web on your laptop, instant messaging, emailing — doing any of these things during a meeting shows everyone else in the meeting, especially your boss, that you're not paying attention.

"They know that while your butt may be planted in the chair, your mind is roaming," Oliver says.

Making personal calls all day long

Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

Talking or texting with friends or family on company time is unprofessional and could be against company policy, Randall says. What's more, doing it during a break is fine, but these correspondences should be kept out of the workplace, even the lunch room.

"You never know when your boss may walk by for an impromptu chat," she says. "What will they see or hear?"

"If the topic of conversation is of a delicate nature, be sure to keep it private. One overheard juicy tidbit can spread like wildfire," Randall says.

Being overtly cliquey


"Maybe the new guy who smells like French Onion Soup is not your favorite person on staff," Oliver says. "That's no reason to flee him every time he asks you for help on an assignment." Nor should you be spreading gossip about him, Haefner says.

It's best to act friendly toward everyone, Oliver explains: "You will come across as more of a team player and show you have management aptitude."

And according to Haefner, nearly half of the employers CareerBuilder surveyed say they would think twice before moving an employee who participates in office gossip up the ranks.

"Take care that any criticism you make about someone's performance is deemed to be constructive, measured, and deserved," Oliver suggests. Not keeping the discourse civil could cost you your job.



"There is a line between curiosity and nosiness, which you don't want to cross," Oliver says. Curiosity, she explains, is when you ask who the new hire is. Nosiness, on the other hand, is when you rifle through your boss's files to see how much the woman three cubicles down earns.

Raiding the supply closet

Justin Sullivan / Getty Images

Taking home a yellow pad of paper and a few pens if you're going to be working from home all weekend is acceptable behavior. But when you raid the supply closet and stash pads of paper, flash drives, notebooks, and folders, you're essentially stealing money from the company, Oliver says.

"Ask yourself if you are really using it for work. If not, leave it be," she says.

The same rule applies for using the phones to make long distance personal calls and using the Xerox machine to make copies of your great American novel.

Drinking on the job

Kiyoshi Ota / Stringer / Getty Images

Some employers stock beer in the fridge and host weekly happy hours. Others do not. If you work for the latter kind of company, drinking on the job is an easy way to get yourself fired. In fact, a survey by The Ladders of managers who have terminated employees for office etiquette offenses found that 35% of bosses surveyed have fired people for boozing at work.

Even if social drinking is part of a company's work culture, it's still not a good idea to drink at work so frequently that you become labeled the office drunk. This rule of thumb also extends outside the office at company gatherings and happy hours.

Looking for another job while you're at work

Getty Images

Just like being on Facebook or making personal phone calls all day are inadvisable, it's especially poor form to spend company time on your job hunt. You might as well ask your boss to fire you now.

Even mentioning your job search to coworkers could pose a serious problem. They may share, intentionally or not, that you're looking for another job, "which could explain your lack of productivity and absences, resulting in a poor reference or an invitation to pick up your paycheck earlier than you expected," Randall says.