Marbury v. Madison, 1803 (4-0 decision)
Established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review over Congress.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 (7-0 decision)
Established the federal government's implied powers over the states.
Loving v. Virginia, 1967 (9-0 decision)
Invalidated state laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 1978 (5-4 decision)
Upheld use of race as one of many factors in college admissions.
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 (7-2 decision)
Denied citizenship to African American slaves.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 (7-1 decision)
Upheld "separate but equal" segregation laws in states.
Korematsu v. United States, 1944 (6-3 decision)
Upheld internment of Japanese Americans during World War II.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 (9-0 decision)
Separating black and white students in public schools is unconstitutional.
Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963 (9-0 decision)
Criminal defendants have a right to an attorney even if they cannot afford one.
Miranda v. Arizona, 1966 (5-4 decision)
Prisoners must be advised of their rights before being questioned by police.
Roe v. Wade, 1973 (7-2 decision)
Women have a constitutional right to an abortion during the first two trimesters.
United States v. Nixon, 1974 (8-0 decision)
President cannot use executive privilege to withhold evidence from criminal trial.
New York Times v. Sullivan, 1964 (9-0 decision)
Lawsuits based on libel or defamation must show intent or recklessness.
Bush v. Gore, 2000 (5-4 decision)
No recount of the 2000 presidential election was feasible in a reasonable time period.
Lawrence v. Texas, 2003 (6-3 decision)
Struck down state laws that prohibited sodomy between consenting adults.
District of Columbia v. Heller, 2008 (5-4 decision)
Citizens have a right to possess firearms at home for self-defense.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 2010 (5-4 decision)
Corporations and unions can spend unlimited amounts in elections.
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 2012 (5-4 decision)
Upheld the mandate that most Americans have health insurance.
Shelby County v. Holder, 2013 (5-4 decision)
States and localities do not need federal approval to change voting laws.